Bio: Charles Burney is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Pottery & Near Eastern archaeology. The author has an hindex of 13, co-authored 22 publications receiving 610 citations.
01 Jan 1971
01 Sep 1962
TL;DR: The third and final season of excavations at Yanik Tepe, near Tabriz, was carried out from ioth August until 5th October, I962, and the work was made possible by the following contributions, which are gratefully acknowledged: the University of Manchester (f6oo), the University Museum, Cambridge (?z5o); the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (?250); the Russell Trust (2zoo); the British Academy (fIso); the City MIuseum, Liverpool (,(ioo), the City Museum and Art Gallery,
Abstract: THE third and final season of excavations at Yanik Tepe, near Tabriz, was carried out from ioth August until 5th October, I962. The work was made possible by the following contributions, which are gratefully acknowledged: the University of Manchester (f6oo); the University Museum, Cambridge (?z5o); the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (?250); the Russell Trust (2zoo); the British Academy (fIso); the City MIuseum, Liverpool (,(ioo); the City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham (UP). This amounted to a total for the I962 season of Ci,6oo. The total sum of contributions for the three seasons of work at Yanik Tepe is ?3,35o. The staff during the I962 season comprised the following: the Director and his wife, who was responsible for the register of finds, the greater part of the object-drawing and the house-keeping; Mr. Edward Keall (Surveyor and Draughtsman); Messrs. David Biernoff, Mark Davie, Patrick Guthrie-Jones and Ian Todd (Archaeological Assistants). Mr. Biernoff also recorded the animal bones, and he and Mr. Keall repaired the pottery; Mr. Todd was responsible for the photography of the objects. Mr. Sarafaraz was appointed by the Director-General of the Archaeological Service of Iran as Inspector to accompany the expedition during the I962 season, and he also acted as an Archaeological Assistant. Thanks are due to the Archaeological Service of Iran, and especially to Dr. Ezatollah Negahban, for help and cooperation in the work of the expedition. Thanks are likewise due to the friends in Tabriz and Teheran whose help and hospitality facilitated our work: to Mr. and Mrs. Harold Popplestone (of the British Council, Tabriz); to Mr. and Mrs. W. Holloway (Point Four, Tabriz) and to others; to the British Institute of Persian Studies, for hospitality in Teheran. The expedition owes a special debt of gratitude to the Department of Education in Tabriz, for loan of equipment and provision of free accommodation during two seasons in the Ferdowsi School at Khosrowshah. Mr. Ahad Darbani, Director of the Tabriz Museum, gave unstintingly of his time and hospitality to help us at the end of the excavations. Among our visitors were Messrs. Robert Dyson and T. Cuyler Young Jnr., from the excavations at Hasanlu, whose hospitality enabled the whole expedition to visit Hasanlu in August I962. We were fortunate to be visited briefly each season by Mr. David Stronach, Director of the British Institute of Persian Studies. An archaeological expedition in the Near East, especially one based on England, requires help from several quarters,
TL;DR: The pottery described in this article was collected during a survey of ancient sites in eastern Turkey carried out in the summer of 1956 as discussed by the authors, which covered the greater part of the provinces of Sivas, Malatya, Elazig, Mus, Bitlis and Van.
Abstract: The pottery described in this article was collected during a survey of ancient sites in eastern Turkey carried out in the summer of 1956. More than 150 Chalcolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age sites were recorded: only the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age pottery is discussed here, the later periods being reserved for a future article. A considerable quantity of potsherds was collected, so that only a selection of the more significant examples has been illustrated. The zone covered by this survey is best described as eastern Anatolia within the mountains, excluding both the Pontic region and the south-eastern provinces of Turkey, bordering on Syria and Iraq: it is the narrowest part of the great natural bridge between Asia and Europe that has given Anatolia its long and varied history. The survey covered the greater part of the provinces of Sivas, Malatya, Elazig, Mus, Bitlis and Van. Sites near Adiyaman, also visited, are not dealt with here. The plain of Igdir, north of Mount Ararat, was partially explored in 1957, and yielded important material, but the plain of Karakose proved to have few sites, and those with little surface pottery. The sherds here described are supplemented by intact vessels from Ernis, on the north-eastern shore of Lake Van, now in Van Museum.
01 Jan 1961
TL;DR: Yanik Tepe as discussed by the authors is one of at least fifty round the shores of Lake Urmia (now Lake Rezaieh) which were found during a survey of sites carried out by the writer in 1958-9.
Abstract: The mound of Yanik Tepe is situated about twenty miles south-west of Tabriz, in north-west Iran, in the central district of the administrative province of east Azerbaijan (see Fig. 1). It stands three miles west of the small town of Khosrowshah, close to the railway from Teheran. This mound is one of at least fifty round the shores of Lake Urmia (now Lake Rezaieh) which were found during a survey of sites carried out by the writer in 1958–9. Most of these sites are round Rezaieh, on the west side of the lake, but there is a number of mounds at intervals along the east side and two or three on the north. The Solduz plain, just south of the lake, where Hasanlu is situated, has been thoroughly surveyed by the American expedition. Yanik Tepe itself is quite a large mound, covering an area of about twenty acres, and with a maximum height of 16.50 metres. It has gently sloping sides, is virtually without vegetation and—a great practical advantage to the archaeologist—is entirely uncultivated, since only irrigated land in this district will grow crops. Presumably, however, there were springs or streams in the vicinity during the Bronze Age. The present village of Tazekand, close to Yanik Tepe, depends for its livelihood principally on fruit-growing rather than cereals.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the Durability of ethnic communities in pre-modern and modern history, including the formation of small nations, and their formation in the modern era.
Abstract: Preface. Note to Maps. Maps. Introduction. 1. Are Nations Modern?. a Modernistsa and a Primordialistsa . Ethnie, Myths and Symbols. The Durability of Ethnic Communities. Part I: Ethnic Communities in Pre--Modern Eras:. 2. Foundations of Ethnic Community. The Dimensions of Ethnie. Some Bases of Ethnic Formation. Structure and persistence of Ethnie. 3. Ethnie and Ethnicism in History. Uniqueness and Exclusion. Ethnic Resistance and Renewal. External Threat and Ethnic Response. Two Types of Ethnic Mythomoteur. 4. Class and Ethnie in Agrarian Societies. Military Mobilization and Ethnic Consciousness. Two Types of Ethnie. Ethnic Polities. 5. Ethnic Survival and Dissolution. Location and Sovereignty. Demographic and Cultural Continuity. Dissolution of Ethnie. Ethnic Survival. Ethnic Socialization and Religious Renewal. Part II: Ethnie and Nations in the Modern Era. 6. The Formation of Nations. Western Revolutions. Territorial and Ethnic Nations. Nation--Formation. The Ethnic Model. Ethnic Solidarity or Political Citizenship?. 7. From Ethnie to Nation. Politicization of Ethnie. The New Priesthood. Autarchy and Territorialization. Mobilization and Inclusion. The New Imagination. 8. Legends and Landscapes. Nostalgia and Posterity. The Sense of a The Pasta . Romantic Nationalism as an a Historical Dramaa . Poetic Spaces: The Uses of Landscape. Golden Ages: The Uses of History. Myths and Nation--Building. 9. The Genealogy of Nations. Parmenideans and Heraclitans. The a Antiquitya of Nations. Transcending Ethnicity?. A World of Small Nations. Ethnic Mobilization and Global Security. Notes. Bibliography. Index.
University of Copenhagen1, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute2, University of Cambridge3, Leiden University4, Harvard University5, Technical University of Denmark6, Al-Farabi University7, University of Chicago8, Karagandy State University9, University of Alaska Fairbanks10, Istanbul University11, Hazara University12, University of Gothenburg13, Russian Academy of Sciences14, Gazi University15, Islamia College University16, University of Exeter17, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa18, Irkutsk State University19, University of Alberta20, Paul Sabatier University21, University of California, Berkeley22
TL;DR: Analysis of ancient whole-genome sequences from across Inner Asia and Anatolia shows that the Botai people associated with the earliest horse husbandry derived from a hunter-gatherer population deeply diverged from the Yamnaya, and suggests distinct migrations bringing West Eurasian ancestry into South Asia before and after, but not at the time of, YamNaya culture.
Abstract: The Yamnaya expansions from the western steppe into Europe and Asia during the Early Bronze Age (~3000 BCE) are believed to have brought with them Indo-European languages and possibly horse husbandry. We analyze 74 ancient whole-genome sequences from across Inner Asia and Anatolia and show that the Botai people associated with the earliest horse husbandry derived from a hunter-gatherer population deeply diverged from the Yamnaya. Our results also suggest distinct migrations bringing West Eurasian ancestry into South Asia before and after but not at the time of Yamnaya culture. We find no evidence of steppe ancestry in Bronze Age Anatolia from when Indo-European languages are attested there. Thus, in contrast to Europe, Early Bronze Age Yamnaya-related migrations had limited direct genetic impact in Asia.
TL;DR: Gourdin and Kingery as discussed by the authors described a multi-step process requiring selection and collection of raw materials, heating of limestone at 800-900°C (gypsum at 150-200°C), slaking the quicklime in water to form the hydroxide, mixing with various additives, applying and shaping as a paste, and often coating with a slip coat and burnishing, a skilled craft activity having some structural similarities to pottery manufacture.
Abstract: Characterization techniques of modern materials science have been used to extend a prior study (W. H. Gourdin and W. D. Kingery, “The Beginnings of Pyrotechnology: Neolithic and Egyptian Lime Plaster,” Journal of Field Archaeology 2 : 133–50) of plaster materials and their processing in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (ca. 7200–6000 B.C.). The “invention” of lime plaster can be traced back to at least the Epi-PaleolithicGeometric Kebaran (ca. 12,000 B.C.) and its use in architecture to the Natufian (10,300–8500 B.C.). The production of lime and gypsum plasters is described as a multi-step process requiring selection and collection of raw materials, heating of limestone at 800–900°C (gypsum at 150–200°C), slaking the quicklime in water to form the hydroxide, mixing with various additives, applying and shaping as a paste, and often coating with a slip coat and burnishing—a skilled craft activity having some structural similarities to pottery manufacture. Plaster production expanded in the Pre-Potter...
TL;DR: The origins of the United Nations can be traced back to pre-modern ethnic communities as discussed by the authors, with their myths of common descent, common memories, culture and solidarity, and associations with a homeland.
Abstract: Although the nation, as a named community of history and culture, possessing a common territory, economy, mass education system and common legal rights, is a relatively modern phenomenon, its origins can be traced back to pre‐modern ethnic communities. Such named ethnies with their myths of common descent, common memories, culture and solidarity, and associations with a homeland, are found in both the ancient and the medieval periods in many areas of the world. Two kinds of ethnie are important for the origins and routes of the formation of nations. Territorial, ‘civic’ nations tend to develop from aristocratic ‘lateral’ ethnies through a process of ‘bureaucratic incorporation’ of outlying regions and lower classes into the ethnic culture of the upper classes, as occurred in France, England and Spain. The more numerous ‘ethnic’ nations, on the other hand, have emerged from demotic ‘vertical’ ethnies through processes of cultural mobilization that turn an often religiously defined and passive comm...
31 Jul 2017