Charles W. Anderson
Bio: Charles W. Anderson is an academic researcher from Colorado State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Artificial neural network & Reinforcement learning. The author has an hindex of 35, co-authored 129 publications receiving 8182 citations. Previous affiliations of Charles W. Anderson include University of Manitoba & University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Papers published on a yearly basis
••01 Sep 1983
TL;DR: In this article, a system consisting of two neuron-like adaptive elements can solve a difficult learning control problem, where the task is to balance a pole that is hinged to a movable cart by applying forces to the cart base.
Abstract: It is shown how a system consisting of two neuronlike adaptive elements can solve a difficult learning control problem. The task is to balance a pole that is hinged to a movable cart by applying forces to the cart's base. It is argued that the learning problems faced by adaptive elements that are components of adaptive networks are at least as difficult as this version of the pole-balancing problem. The learning system consists of a single associative search element (ASE) and a single adaptive critic element (ACE). In the course of learning to balance the pole, the ASE constructs associations between input and output by searching under the influence of reinforcement feedback, and the ACE constructs a more informative evaluation function than reinforcement feedback alone can provide. The differences between this approach and other attempts to solve problems using neurolike elements are discussed, as is the relation of this work to classical and instrumental conditioning in animal learning studies and its possible implications for research in the neurosciences.
••28 Jul 2003
TL;DR: The results of a linear (linear discriminant analysis) and two nonlinear classifiers applied to the classification of spontaneous EEG during five mental tasks are reported, showing that non linear classifiers produce only slightly better classification results.
Abstract: The reliable operation of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) signals requires accurate classification of multichannel EEG. The design of EEG representations and classifiers for BCI are open research questions whose difficulty stems from the need to extract complex spatial and temporal patterns from noisy multidimensional time series obtained from EEG measurements. The high-dimensional and noisy nature of EEG may limit the advantage of nonlinear classification methods over linear ones. This paper reports the results of a linear (linear discriminant analysis) and two nonlinear classifiers (neural networks and support vector machines) applied to the classification of spontaneous EEG during five mental tasks, showing that nonlinear classifiers produce only slightly better classification results. An approach to feature selection based on genetic algorithms is also presented with preliminary results of application to EEG during finger movement.
TL;DR: In this article, an inverted pendulum is simulated as a control task with the goal of learning to balance the pendulum with no a priori knowledge of the dynamics, and reinforcement and temporal-difference learning methods are presented that deal with these issues to avoid unstable conditions.
Abstract: An inverted pendulum is simulated as a control task with the goal of learning to balance the pendulum with no a priori knowledge of the dynamics. In contrast to other applications of neural networks to the inverted pendulum task, performance feedback is assumed to be unavailable on each step, appearing only as a failure signal when the pendulum falls or reaches the bounds of a horizontal track. To solve this task, the controller must deal with issues of delayed performance evaluation, learning under uncertainty, and the learning of nonlinear functions. Reinforcement and temporal-difference learning methods are presented that deal with these issues to avoid unstable conditions and balance the pendulum. >
TL;DR: This article explores the use of scalar and multivariate autoregressive (AR) models to extract features from the human electroencephalogram (EEG) with which mental tasks can be discriminated, and investigates the feasibility of using EEG to allow paralyzed persons to control a device such as a wheelchair.
Abstract: This article explores the use of scalar and multivariate autoregressive (AR) models to extract features from the human electroencephalogram (EEG) with which mental tasks can be discriminated. This is part of a larger project to investigate the feasibility of using EEG to allow paralyzed persons to control a device such as a wheelchair. EEG signals from four subjects were recorded while they performed two mental tasks. Quarter-second windows of six-channel EEG were transformed into four different representations: scalar AR model coefficients, multivariate AR coefficients, eigenvalues of a correlation matrix, and the Karhunen-Loeve transform of the multivariate AR coefficients. Feature vectors defined by these representations were classified with a standard, feedforward neural network trained via the error backpropagation algorithm. The four representations produced similar results, with the multivariate AR coefficients performing slightly better and more consistently with an average classification accuracy of 91.4% on novel, untrained, EEG signals.
••28 Jul 2003
TL;DR: Overall, it was agreed that simplicity is generally best and, therefore, the use of linear methods is recommended wherever possible and nonlinear methods in some applications can provide better results, particularly with complex and/or other very large data sets.
Abstract: At the recent Second International Meeting on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) held in June 2002 in Rensselaerville, NY, a formal debate was held on the pros and cons of linear and nonlinear methods in BCI research. Specific examples applying EEG data sets to linear and nonlinear methods are given and an overview of the various pros and cons of each approach is summarized. Overall, it was agreed that simplicity is generally best and, therefore, the use of linear methods is recommended wherever possible. It was also agreed that nonlinear methods in some applications can provide better results, particularly with complex and/or other very large data sets.
•01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: This book provides a clear and simple account of the key ideas and algorithms of reinforcement learning, which ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to the most recent developments and applications.
Abstract: Reinforcement learning, one of the most active research areas in artificial intelligence, is a computational approach to learning whereby an agent tries to maximize the total amount of reward it receives when interacting with a complex, uncertain environment. In Reinforcement Learning, Richard Sutton and Andrew Barto provide a clear and simple account of the key ideas and algorithms of reinforcement learning. Their discussion ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to the most recent developments and applications. The only necessary mathematical background is familiarity with elementary concepts of probability. The book is divided into three parts. Part I defines the reinforcement learning problem in terms of Markov decision processes. Part II provides basic solution methods: dynamic programming, Monte Carlo methods, and temporal-difference learning. Part III presents a unified view of the solution methods and incorporates artificial neural networks, eligibility traces, and planning; the two final chapters present case studies and consider the future of reinforcement learning.
TL;DR: This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium, review deep supervised learning, unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.
Abstract: In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning. This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium. Shallow and Deep Learners are distinguished by the depth of their credit assignment paths, which are chains of possibly learnable, causal links between actions and effects. I review deep supervised learning (also recapitulating the history of backpropagation), unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.
•01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: This book discusses the evolution of architecture, primitive functions, terminals, sufficiency, and closure, and the role of representation and the lens effect in genetic programming.
Abstract: Background on genetic algorithms, LISP, and genetic programming hierarchical problem-solving introduction to automatically-defined functions - the two-boxes problem problems that straddle the breakeven point for computational effort Boolean parity functions determining the architecture of the program the lawnmower problem the bumblebee problem the increasing benefits of ADFs as problems are scaled up finding an impulse response function artificial ant on the San Mateo trail obstacle-avoiding robot the minesweeper problem automatic discovery of detectors for letter recognition flushes and four-of-a-kinds in a pinochle deck introduction to biochemistry and molecular biology prediction of transmembrane domains in proteins prediction of omega loops in proteins lookahead version of the transmembrane problem evolutionary selection of the architecture of the program evolution of primitives and sufficiency evolutionary selection of terminals evolution of closure simultaneous evolution of architecture, primitive functions, terminals, sufficiency, and closure the role of representation and the lens effect Appendices: list of special symbols list of special functions list of type fonts default parameters computer implementation annotated bibliography of genetic programming electronic mailing list and public repository
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.