Chew Chieng Yeo
Other affiliations: National University of Singapore
Bio: Chew Chieng Yeo is an academic researcher from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Plasmid & Pseudomonas alcaligenes. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 74 publications receiving 1521 citations. Previous affiliations of Chew Chieng Yeo include National University of Singapore.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Type II TA antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay.
Abstract: In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I-VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA antitoxins. We shall also look into some interesting deviations from the canonical type II TA systems such as tripartite TA systems where the regulatory role is played by a third party protein and not the antitoxin, and a unique TA system encoding a single protein with both toxin as well as antitoxin domains.
TL;DR: Results from site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the toxicity of PezT is dependent on a highly conserved phosphoryltransferase active site and an ATP/GTP nucleotide binding site and in the PezA2PezT2 complex, Pez
Abstract: The chromosomal pezT gene of the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a protein that is homologous to the zeta toxin of the Streptococcus pyogenes plasmid pSM19035-encoded epsilon-zeta toxin-antitoxin system. Overexpression of pezT in Escherichia coli led to severe growth inhibition from which the bacteria recovered ∼3 h after induction of expression. The toxicity of PezT was counteracted by PezA, which is encoded immediately upstream of pezT and shares weak sequence similarities in the C-terminal region with the epsilon antitoxin. The pezAT genes form a bicistronic operon that is co-transcribed from a σ70-like promoter upstream of pezA and is negatively autoregulated with PezA functioning as a transcriptional repressor and PezT as a co-repressor. Both PezA and the non-toxic PezA2PezT2 protein complex bind to a palindrome sequence that overlaps the promoter. This differs from the epsilon-zeta system in which epsilon functions solely as the antitoxin and transcriptional regulation is carried out by another protein designated omega. Results from site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the toxicity of PezT is dependent on a highly conserved phosphoryltransferase active site and an ATP/GTP nucleotide binding site. In the PezA2PezT2 complex, PezA neutralizes the toxicity of PezT by blocking the nucleotide binding site through steric hindrance.
TL;DR: The emergence of Escherichia coli that produce extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and are multidrug resistant (MDR), and some of the antibiotic resistance genes were likely plasmid-encoded and transmissible were studied.
Abstract: The emergence of Escherichia coli that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and are multidrug resistant (MDR) poses antibiotic management problems. Forty-seven E. coli isolates from various public hospitals in Malaysia were studied. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem whereas 36 were MDR (resistant to 2 or more classes of antibiotics). PCR detection using gene-specific primers showed that 87.5% of the ESBL-producing E. coli harbored the blaTEM gene. Other ESBL-encoding genes detected were blaOXA, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M. Integron-encoded integrases were detected in 55.3% of isolates, with class 1 integron-encoded intI1 integrase being the majority. Amplification and sequence analysis of the 5'CS region of the integrons showed known antibiotic resistance-encoding gene cassettes of various sizes that were inserted within the respective integrons. Conjugation and transformation experiments indicated that some of the antibiotic resistance genes were likely plasmid-encoded and transmissible. All 47 isolates were subtyped by PFGE and PCR-based fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), repetitive extragenic palindromes (REPs), and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC). These isolates were very diverse and heterogeneous. PFGE, ERIC, and REP-PCR methods were more discriminative than RAPD in subtyping the E. coli isolates.
TL;DR: It is shown that overproduction of YoeB(Spn) is toxic to Escherichia coli cells, leading to severe inhibition of cell growth and to a reduction in cell viability; this toxicity was more pronounced in an E. coli B strain than in two E.E. coli K-12 strains.
Abstract: Toxin-antitoxin loci belonging to the yefM-yoeB family are located in the chromosome or in some plasmids of several bacteria. We cloned the yefM-yoeB locus of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and these genes encode bona fide antitoxin (YefMSpn) and toxin (YoeBSpn) products. We showed that overproduction of YoeBSpn is toxic to Escherichia coli cells, leading to severe inhibition of cell growth and to a reduction in cell viability; this toxicity was more pronounced in an E. coli B strain than in two E. coli K-12 strains. The YoeBSpn-mediated toxicity could be reversed by the cognate antitoxin, YefMSpn, but not by overproduction of the E. coli YefM antitoxin. The pneumococcal proteins were purified and were shown to interact with each other both in vitro and in vivo. Far-UV circular dichroism analyses indicated that the pneumococcal antitoxin was partially, but not totally, unfolded and was different than its E. coli counterpart. Molecular modeling showed that the toxins belonging to the family were homologous, whereas the antitoxins appeared to be specifically designed for each bacterial locus; thus, the toxin-antitoxin interactions were adapted to the different bacterial environmental conditions. Both structural features, folding and the molecular modeled structure, could explain the lack of cross-complementation between the pneumococcal and E. coli antitoxins.
TL;DR: A meticulous bioinformatics search has been performed for 48 pneumococcal genomes that are found in public databases, and more putative TAS, homologous to well-characterized ones, have been revealed.
Abstract: Pneumococcal infections cause up to 2 million deaths annually and raise a large economic burden and thus constitute an important threat to mankind. Because of the increase in the antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates, there is an urgent need to find new antimicrobial approaches to triumph over pneumococcal infections. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems (TAS), which are present in most living bacteria but not in eukaryotes, have been proposed as an effective strategy to combat bacterial infections. Type II TAS comprise a stable toxin and a labile antitoxin that form an innocuous TA complex under normal conditions. Under stress conditions, TA synthesis will be triggered, resulting in the degradation of the labile antitoxin and the release of the toxin protein, which would poison the host cells. The three functional chromosomal TAS from S. pneumoniae that have been studied as well as their molecular characteristics are discussed in detail in this review. Furthermore, a meticulous bioinformatics search has been performed for 48 pneumococcal genomes that are found in public databases, and more putative TAS, homologous to well-characterized ones, have been revealed. Strikingly, several unusual putative TAS, in terms of components and genetic organizations previously not envisaged, have been discovered and are further discussed. Previously, we reported a novel finding in which a unique pneumococcal DNA signature, the BOX element, affected the regulation of the pneumococcal yefM-yoeB TAS. This BOX element has also been found in some of the other pneumococcal TAS. In this review, we also discuss possible relationships between some of the pneumococcal TAS with pathogenicity, competence, biofilm formation, persistence, and an interesting phenomenon called bistability.
01 Jun 2012
TL;DR: SPAdes as mentioned in this paper is a new assembler for both single-cell and standard (multicell) assembly, and demonstrate that it improves on the recently released E+V-SC assembler and on popular assemblers Velvet and SoapDeNovo (for multicell data).
Abstract: The lion's share of bacteria in various environments cannot be cloned in the laboratory and thus cannot be sequenced using existing technologies. A major goal of single-cell genomics is to complement gene-centric metagenomic data with whole-genome assemblies of uncultivated organisms. Assembly of single-cell data is challenging because of highly non-uniform read coverage as well as elevated levels of sequencing errors and chimeric reads. We describe SPAdes, a new assembler for both single-cell and standard (multicell) assembly, and demonstrate that it improves on the recently released E+V-SC assembler (specialized for single-cell data) and on popular assemblers Velvet and SoapDeNovo (for multicell data). SPAdes generates single-cell assemblies, providing information about genomes of uncultivatable bacteria that vastly exceeds what may be obtained via traditional metagenomics studies. SPAdes is available online ( http://bioinf.spbau.ru/spades ). It is distributed as open source software.
01 Sep 2008
TL;DR: The Methodology used to Prepare the Guideline Epidemiology Incidence Etiology and Recommendations for Assessing Response to Therapy Suggested Performance Indicators is summarized.
Abstract: Executive Summary Introduction Methodology Used to Prepare the Guideline Epidemiology Incidence Etiology Major Epidemiologic Points Pathogenesis Major Points for Pathogenesis Modifiable Risk Factors Intubation and Mechanical Ventilation Aspiration, Body Position, and Enteral Feeding Modulation of Colonization: Oral Antiseptics and Antibiotics Stress Bleeding Prophylaxis, Transfusion, and Glucose Control Major Points and Recommendations for Modifiable Risk Factors Diagnostic Testing Major Points and Recommendations for Diagnosis Diagnostic Strategies and Approaches Clinical Strategy Bacteriologic Strategy Recommended Diagnostic Strategy Major Points and Recommendations for Comparing Diagnostic Strategies Antibiotic Treatment of Hospital-acquired Pneumonia General Approach Initial Empiric Antibiotic Therapy Appropriate Antibiotic Selection and Adequate Dosing Local Instillation and Aerosolized Antibiotics Combination versus Monotherapy Duration of Therapy Major Points and Recommendations for Optimal Antibiotic Therapy Specific Antibiotic Regimens Antibiotic Heterogeneity and Antibiotic Cycling Response to Therapy Modification of Empiric Antibiotic Regimens Defining the Normal Pattern of Resolution Reasons for Deterioration or Nonresolution Evaluation of the Nonresponding Patient Major Points and Recommendations for Assessing Response to Therapy Suggested Performance Indicators
TL;DR: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology Title NLM.
TL;DR: The characteristics of the major types of mobile genetic elements involved in acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are outlined, focusing on the so-called ESKAPEE group of organisms, which have become the most problematic hospital pathogens.
Abstract: SUMMARY Strains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, particularly those that are multiresistant, are an increasing major health care problem around the world. It is now abundantly clear that both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are able to meet the evolutionary challenge of combating antimicrobial chemotherapy, often by acquiring preexisting resistance determinants from the bacterial gene pool. This is achieved through the concerted activities of mobile genetic elements able to move within or between DNA molecules, which include insertion sequences, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and those that are able to transfer between bacterial cells, such as plasmids and integrative conjugative elements. Together these elements play a central role in facilitating horizontal genetic exchange and therefore promote the acquisition and spread of resistance genes. This review aims to outline the characteristics of the major types of mobile genetic elements involved in acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, focusing on the so-called ESKAPEE group of organisms (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., and Escherichia coli), which have become the most problematic hospital pathogens.
TL;DR: Current knowledge concerning the different strategies bacteria employ to resist the activities of polymyxins are summarized and increased understanding of these mechanisms is extremely vital and timely to facilitate studies of antimicrobial peptides and find new potential drugs targeting clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria.
Abstract: Polymyxins are polycationic antimicrobial peptides that are currently the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections. The reintroduction of polymyxins for antimicrobial therapy has been followed by an increase in reports of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. Some bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, develop resistance to polymyxins in a process referred to as acquired resistance, whereas other bacteria, such as Proteus spp., Serratia spp. and Burkholderia spp., are naturally resistant to these drugs. Reports of polymyxin resistance in clinical isolates have recently increased, including acquired and intrinsically resistant pathogens. This increase is considered a serious issue, prompting concern due to the low number of currently available effective antibiotics. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the different strategies bacteria employ to resist the activities of polymyxins. Gram-negative bacteria employ several strategies to protect themselves from polymyxin antibiotics (polymyxin B and colistin), including a variety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modifications, such as modifications of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine and 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, in addition to the use of efflux pumps, the formation of capsules and overexpression of the outer membrane protein OprH, which are all effectively regulated at the molecular level. The increased understanding of these mechanisms is extremely vital and timely to facilitate studies of antimicrobial peptides and find new potential drugs targeting clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria.