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Chi-Hua Chen

Bio: Chi-Hua Chen is an academic researcher from University of California, San Diego. The author has contributed to research in topics: Genome-wide association study & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 37, co-authored 80 publications receiving 5881 citations. Previous affiliations of Chi-Hua Chen include Queen Elizabeth II Hospital & University of Cambridge.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients with bipolar disorder underactivated the inferior frontal cortex (IFG) and putamen and overactivated limbic areas, including medial temporal structures (parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, and amygdala) and basal ganglia, and enhanced limbic activation was elicited by emotional and not cognitive tasks, and not clearly related to mood states.
Abstract: Chen C-H, Suckling J, Lennox BR, Ooi C, Bullmore ET. A quantitative meta-analysis of fMRI studies in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 2011: 13: 1–15. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objectives: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to identify state and trait markers of brain abnormalities associated with bipolar disorder (BD). However, the primary literature is composed of small-to-medium-sized studies, using diverse activation paradigms on variously characterized patient groups, which can be difficult to synthesize into a coherent account. This review aimed to synthesize current evidence from fMRI studies in midlife adults with BD and to investigate whether there is support for the theoretical models of the disorder. Methods: We used voxel-based quantitative meta-analytic methods to combine primary data on anatomical coordinates of activation from 65 fMRI studies comparing normal volunteers (n = 1,074) and patients with BD (n = 1,040). Results: Compared to normal volunteers, patients with BD underactivated the inferior frontal cortex (IFG) and putamen and overactivated limbic areas, including medial temporal structures (parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, and amygdala) and basal ganglia. Dividing studies into those using emotional and cognitive paradigms demonstrated that the IFG abnormalities were manifest during both cognitive and emotional processing, while increased limbic activation was mainly related to emotional processing. In further separate comparisons between healthy volunteers and patient subgroups in each clinical state, the IFG was underactive in manic but not in euthymic and depressed states. Limbic structures were not overactive in association with mood states, with the exception of increased amygdala activation in euthymic states when including region-of-interest studies. Conclusions: In summary, our results showed abnormal frontal-limbic activation in BD. There was attenuated activation of the IFG or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was consistent across emotional and cognitive tasks and particularly related to the state of mania, and enhanced limbic activation, which was elicited by emotional and not cognitive tasks, and not clearly related to mood states.

419 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2007-Brain
TL;DR: Structural variation in large-scale brain systems related to motor inhibitory control may mediate genetic risk for OCD, representing the first evidence for a neurocognitive endophenotype of OCD.
Abstract: Endophenotypes (intermediate phenotypes) are objective, heritable, quantitative traits hypothesized to represent genetic risk for polygenic disorders at more biologically tractable levels than distal behavioural and clinical phenotypes. It is theorized that endophenotype models of disease will help to clarify both diagnostic classification and aetiological understanding of complex brain disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To investigate endophenotypes in OCD, we measured brain structure using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural performance on a response inhibition task (Stop-Signal) in 31 OCD patients, 31 of their unaffected first-degree relatives, and 31 unrelated matched controls. Both patients and relatives had delayed response inhibition on the Stop-Signal task compared with healthy controls. We used a multivoxel analysis method (partial least squares) to identify large-scale brain systems in which anatomical variation was associated with variation in performance on the response inhibition task. Behavioural impairment on the Stop-Signal task, occurring predominantly in patients and relatives, was significantly associated with reduced grey matter in orbitofrontal and right inferior frontal regions and increased grey matter in cingulate, parietal and striatal regions. A novel permutation test indicated significant familial effects on variation of the MRI markers of inhibitory processing, supporting the candidacy of these brain structural systems as endophenotypes of OCD. In summary, structural variation in large-scale brain systems related to motor inhibitory control may mediate genetic risk for OCD, representing the first evidence for a neurocognitive endophenotype of OCD.

411 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Structural MRI measurements of anterior cingulate cortex could provide a useful predictor of antidepressant treatment response as well as brain structure and function measured in patients with major depression immediately before 8 weeks treatment with fluoxetine.

340 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High genetic correlations were found between extraversion and attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and between openness and schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and between neuroticism and openness to experience were clustered with the disorders.
Abstract: Personality is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and associated with mental health. However, the underlying genetic determinants are largely unknown. We identified six genetic loci, including five novel loci, significantly associated with personality traits in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (N = 123,132-260,861). Of these genome-wide significant loci, extraversion was associated with variants in WSCD2 and near PCDH15, and neuroticism with variants on chromosome 8p23.1 and in L3MBTL2. We performed a principal component analysis to extract major dimensions underlying genetic variations among five personality traits and six psychiatric disorders (N = 5,422-18,759). The first genetic dimension separated personality traits and psychiatric disorders, except that neuroticism and openness to experience were clustered with the disorders. High genetic correlations were found between extraversion and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and between openness and schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The second genetic dimension was closely aligned with extraversion-introversion and grouped neuroticism with internalizing psychopathology (e.g., depression or anxiety).

337 citations


Cited by
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28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: For the next few weeks the course is going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach it’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery.
Abstract: So far in this course we have dealt entirely with the evolution of characters that are controlled by simple Mendelian inheritance at a single locus. There are notes on the course website about gametic disequilibrium and how allele frequencies change at two loci simultaneously, but we didn’t discuss them. In every example we’ve considered we’ve imagined that we could understand something about evolution by examining the evolution of a single gene. That’s the domain of classical population genetics. For the next few weeks we’re going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach we’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery. If you know a little about the history of evolutionary biology, you may know that after the rediscovery of Mendel’s work in 1900 there was a heated debate between the “biometricians” (e.g., Galton and Pearson) and the “Mendelians” (e.g., de Vries, Correns, Bateson, and Morgan). Biometricians asserted that the really important variation in evolution didn’t follow Mendelian rules. Height, weight, skin color, and similar traits seemed to

9,847 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jun 1986-JAMA
TL;DR: The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or her own research.
Abstract: I have developed "tennis elbow" from lugging this book around the past four weeks, but it is worth the pain, the effort, and the aspirin. It is also worth the (relatively speaking) bargain price. Including appendixes, this book contains 894 pages of text. The entire panorama of the neural sciences is surveyed and examined, and it is comprehensive in its scope, from genomes to social behaviors. The editors explicitly state that the book is designed as "an introductory text for students of biology, behavior, and medicine," but it is hard to imagine any audience, interested in any fragment of neuroscience at any level of sophistication, that would not enjoy this book. The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or

7,563 citations