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Author

Chris Milner

Other affiliations: Loughborough University
Bio: Chris Milner is an academic researcher from University of Nottingham. The author has contributed to research in topics: Trade barrier & Commercial policy. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 183 publications receiving 5762 citations. Previous affiliations of Chris Milner include Loughborough University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors disentangled horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade in U.K. trade using a unit value dispersion criterion and a range of industry characteristics, showing the relative importance of vertical and horizontal IIT in the United Kingdom.
Abstract: A large theoretical literature has emerged directed at explaining the presence of intra-industry trade (IIT). One of the distinctions which comes out of these models is that between horizontal IIT (where goods are differentiated by attributes) and vertical IIT (where goods are differentiated by quality). In this paper horizontal and vertical IIT in U.K. trade are disentangled using a unit value dispersion criterion and a range of industry characteristics. The paper not only points up the relative importance of vertical and horizontal IIT in the United Kingdom, it also demonstrates how a failure to separate them out can impact on the interpretation of empirical results. Copyright 1995 by Royal Economic Society.

549 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors disaggregated UK IIT into its horizontal and vertical components and, using bilateral trade data, estimated a series of models incorporating country-specific variables, concluding that vertical IIT is more important in the UK than horizontal IIT and that the inter-country pattern of vertical intra-industry trade is systematically related to a range of explanatory variables.
Abstract: Country-Specific Factors and the Pattern of Horizontal and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade in the UK. - A large number of empirical studies have investigated the relationship between country-specific factors and total intra-industry trade (IIT). One important shortcoming of this literature is that it ignores the distinction between horizontal and vertical IIT and ignores the fact that they may have different determinants. This paper disaggregates UK IIT into its horizontal and vertical components and, using bilateral trade data, estimates a series of models incorporating countryspecific variables. The results suggest that vertical IIT is more important in the UK than horizontal IIT and that the inter-country pattern of vertical IIT is systematically related to a range of explanatory variables.

499 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the effects of trade-induced shifts in the composition of demand on inter-industry employment and wage levels in developing countries by using dynamic panel techniques for importable and exportable sectors.
Abstract: This paper investigates labour market responses to trade liberalisation in an industrialising country. Short and long run responses of employment and wages are examined using a specific factor trade model, which underpins the empirical work. Employment and wage equations are estimated using dynamic panel techniques for importable and exportable sectors in Mauritius and for a period covering both the pre- and post-liberalisation regimes. The empirical testing finds some support for the theoretical predictions of differential responses between sectors. Increases in female participation, however, appear to have dampened the adjustment burdens of liberalisation on importables. There is relatively little evidence available about the effects of trade-induced shifts in the composition of demand on inter-industry employment and wage levels in developing countries. Analyses' of the factor content of imports and exports suggest that a shift from import substitution (IS) to export promotion (EP) policies will typically, in the case of a developing country, expand the more labour-intensive industries, increase labour demand overall and drive up real wages in the long run. But trade liberalisation and increased foreign competition may not only affect the composition of the tradeables goods sector (i.e. the distribution between importables and exportables), they may also affect both the efficiency with which all firms use factors (including labour) and the distribution of output within a sector between more and less efficient firms. Thus the net long-run effects of trade liberalisation on employment will depend upon the balance of structural and efficiency effects, which cannot be identified from analyses of the composition of trade alone. Further we must also recognise that the short- and long-run effects of trade liberalisation on employment and wages may diverge; the divergence depending on the degree of factor mobility and the competitiveness of labour markets. The aim of this paper is to model labour market adjustment to trade liberalisation in an industrialisingz country. It will do so using panel data evidence for Mauritius, an economy that has undergone significant trade liberalisation and transformation during the 1980s. Indeed Mauritius is viewed simultaneously as a successful liberaliser and an economy with extensive government intervention in the labour market. It provides a valuable test base

222 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors comprehensively tested the export-led growth hypothesis for Malaysia for the period 1955 - 90, using cointegration and causality testing based on Hsiao's synthesis of the Granger test and Akaike's minimum final prediction error criterion.
Abstract: This paper comprehensively tests the export-led growth (ELG) hypothesis for Malaysia for the period 1955 - 90, using cointegration and causality testing based on Hsiao's synthesis of the Granger test and Akaike's minimum final prediction error criterion. The results provide support for the ELG hypothesis; aggregate exports Granger-cause real GDP and non-export GDP. This relationship is found to be driven by manufactured exports rather than by traditional exports.

211 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a variety of analytic approaches have been used to address the problems of international cooperation, but the approaches have yielded only fragmentary insights, focusing on the technical aspects of a specific problem, how do they define state interests and develop viable solutions? What factors shape their behavior? Under conditions of uncertainty, what are the origins of international institutions? And how can we best study the processes through which international policy coordination and order emerge?
Abstract: The growing technical uncertainties and complexities of problems of global concern have made international policy coordination not only increasingly necessary but also increasingly difficult. If decision makers are unfamiliar with the technical aspects of a specific problem, how do they define state interests and develop viable solutions? What factors shape their behavior? Under conditions of uncertainty, what are the origins of international institutions? And how can we best study the processes through which international policy coordination and order emerge? While a variety of analytic approaches have been used to address the problems of international cooperation, the approaches have yielded only fragmentary insights. At its core, the study of policy coordination among states involves arguments about determinism versus free will and about the ways in which the international system is maintained and transformed. Among the overlapping topics of debate are whether national behavior is determined or broadly conditioned by system-level factors, unit-level factors, or some complex interplay between the two; whether state policymakers can identify national interests and behave independently of pressures from the social groups they nominally represent; and whether states respond consistently to opportunities to create, defend, or expand their own wealth and power, to enhance collective material benefits, or to promote nonmaterial values.' A related question of

5,854 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1981
TL;DR: This chapter discusses Detecting Influential Observations and Outliers, a method for assessing Collinearity, and its applications in medicine and science.
Abstract: 1. Introduction and Overview. 2. Detecting Influential Observations and Outliers. 3. Detecting and Assessing Collinearity. 4. Applications and Remedies. 5. Research Issues and Directions for Extensions. Bibliography. Author Index. Subject Index.

4,948 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: A theme of the text is the use of artificial regressions for estimation, reference, and specification testing of nonlinear models, including diagnostic tests for parameter constancy, serial correlation, heteroscedasticity, and other types of mis-specification.
Abstract: Offering a unifying theoretical perspective not readily available in any other text, this innovative guide to econometrics uses simple geometrical arguments to develop students' intuitive understanding of basic and advanced topics, emphasizing throughout the practical applications of modern theory and nonlinear techniques of estimation. One theme of the text is the use of artificial regressions for estimation, reference, and specification testing of nonlinear models, including diagnostic tests for parameter constancy, serial correlation, heteroscedasticity, and other types of mis-specification. Explaining how estimates can be obtained and tests can be carried out, the authors go beyond a mere algebraic description to one that can be easily translated into the commands of a standard econometric software package. Covering an unprecedented range of problems with a consistent emphasis on those that arise in applied work, this accessible and coherent guide to the most vital topics in econometrics today is indispensable for advanced students of econometrics and students of statistics interested in regression and related topics. It will also suit practising econometricians who want to update their skills. Flexibly designed to accommodate a variety of course levels, it offers both complete coverage of the basic material and separate chapters on areas of specialized interest.

4,284 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors reviewed some of the criticisms directed towards the eclectic paradigm of international production over the past decade, and restates its main tenets, concluding that it remains a robust general framework for explaining and analysing not only the economic rationale of economic production but many organisational and impact issues in relation to MNE activity as well.
Abstract: This article reviews some of the criticisms directed towards the eclectic paradigm of international production over the past decade, and restates its main tenets. The second part of the article considers a number of possible extensions of the paradigm and concludes by asserting that it remains “a robust general framework for explaining and analysing not only the economic rationale of economic production but many organisational and impact issues in relation to MNE activity as well.”

4,123 citations

01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: This article investigated whether income inequality affects subsequent growth in a cross-country sample for 1965-90, using the models of Barro (1997), Bleaney and Nishiyama (2002) and Sachs and Warner (1997) with negative results.
Abstract: We investigate whether income inequality affects subsequent growth in a cross-country sample for 1965-90, using the models of Barro (1997), Bleaney and Nishiyama (2002) and Sachs and Warner (1997), with negative results. We then investigate the evolution of income inequality over the same period and its correlation with growth. The dominating feature is inequality convergence across countries. This convergence has been significantly faster amongst developed countries. Growth does not appear to influence the evolution of inequality over time. Outline

3,770 citations