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Christian A. Gueymard

Bio: Christian A. Gueymard is an academic researcher from University of Central Florida. The author has contributed to research in topics: Solar irradiance & Irradiance. The author has an hindex of 47, co-authored 152 publications receiving 9332 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a composite time series of total solar irradiance spaceborne measurements is used to predict the sun's irradiance within 0.1% on average, as accurately as current measurements.

843 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, two intense dust storms were generated over the Gobi desert by springtime low-pressure systems descending from the northwest, and the windblown dust was detected and its evolution followed by its yellow color on SeaWiFS satellite images, routine surface-based monitoring and through serendipitous observations.
Abstract: On April 15 and 19, 1998, two intense dust storms were generated over the Gobi desert by springtime low-pressure systems descending from the northwest. The windblown dust was detected and its evolution followed by its yellow color on SeaWiFS satellite images, routine surface-based monitoring, and through serendipitous observations. The April 15 dust cloud was recirculating, and it was removed by a precipitating weather system over east Asia. The April 19 dust cloud crossed the Pacific Ocean in 5 days, subsided to the surface along the mountain ranges between British Columbia and California, and impacted severely the optical and the concentration environments of the region. In east Asia the dust clouds increased the albedo over the cloudless ocean and land by up to 10–20%, but it reduced the near-UV cloud reflectance, causing a yellow coloration of all surfaces. The yellow colored backscattering by the dust eludes a plausible explanation using simple Mie theory with constant refractive index. Over the West Coast the dust layer has increased the spectrally uniform optical depth to about 0.4, reduced the direct solar radiation by 30–40%, doubled the diffuse radiation, and caused a whitish discoloration of the blue sky. On April 29 the average excess surface-level dust aerosol concentration over the valleys of the West Coast was about 20–50 μg/m3 with local peaks >100 μg/m3. The dust mass mean diameter was 2–3 μm, and the dust chemical fingerprints were evident throughout the West Coast and extended to Minnesota. The April 1998 dust event has impacted the surface aerosol concentration 2–4 times more than any other dust event since 1988. The dust events were observed and interpreted by an ad hoc international web-based virtual community. It would be useful to set up a community-supported web-based infrastructure to monitor the global aerosol pattern for such extreme aerosol events, to alert and to inform the interested communities, and to facilitate collaborative analysis for improved air quality and disaster management.

795 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an upgraded spectral radiation model called SMARTS2 (Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine) is introduced, based on spectral transmittance functions for the main extinction processes in the cloudless atmosphere: Rayleigh scattering, aerosol extinction, and absorption by ozone, uniformly mixed gases, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide.

745 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a more detailed and reliable spectral information from the UV (280-nm) to the near infrared (4000-nm), which is typical of a cleaner atmosphere where solar applications can be deployed more advantageously.

535 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: REST2 as discussed by the authors is a high-performance model to predict cloudless-sky broadband irradiance, illuminance and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from atmospheric data, using the same two-band scheme as in the previous CPCR2 model, but with numerous improvements.

357 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 1989
TL;DR: In this article, a two-dimensional version of the Pennsylvania State University mesoscale model has been applied to Winter Monsoon Experiment data in order to simulate the diurnally occurring convection observed over the South China Sea.
Abstract: Abstract A two-dimensional version of the Pennsylvania State University mesoscale model has been applied to Winter Monsoon Experiment data in order to simulate the diurnally occurring convection observed over the South China Sea. The domain includes a representation of part of Borneo as well as the sea so that the model can simulate the initiation of convection. Also included in the model are parameterizations of mesoscale ice phase and moisture processes and longwave and shortwave radiation with a diurnal cycle. This allows use of the model to test the relative importance of various heating mechanisms to the stratiform cloud deck, which typically occupies several hundred kilometers of the domain. Frank and Cohen's cumulus parameterization scheme is employed to represent vital unresolved vertical transports in the convective area. The major conclusions are: Ice phase processes are important in determining the level of maximum large-scale heating and vertical motion because there is a strong anvil componen...

3,813 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor on the Nimbus 7 satellite to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics.
Abstract: [1] We use the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor on the Nimbus 7 satellite to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics The largest and most persistent sources are located in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in a broad “dust belt” that extends from the west coast of North Africa, over the Middle East, Central and South Asia, to China There is remarkably little large-scale dust activity outside this region In particular, the Southern Hemisphere is devoid of major dust activity Dust sources, regardless of size or strength, can usually be associated with topographical lows located in arid regions with annual rainfall under 200–250 mm Although the source regions themselves are arid or hyperarid, the action of water is evident from the presence of ephemeral streams, rivers, lakes, and playas Most major sources have been intermittently flooded through the Quaternary as evidenced by deep alluvial deposits Many sources are associated with areas where human impacts are well documented, eg, the Caspian and Aral Seas, Tigris-Euphrates River Basin, southwestern North America, and the loess lands in China Nonetheless, the largest and most active sources are located in truly remote areas where there is little or no human activity Thus, on a global scale, dust mobilization appears to be dominated by natural sources Dust activity is extremely sensitive to many environmental parameters The identification of major sources will enable us to focus on critical regions and to characterize emission rates in response to environmental conditions With such knowledge we will be better able to improve global dust models and to assess the effects of climate change on emissions in the future It will also facilitate the interpretation of the paleoclimate record based on dust contained in ocean sediments and ice cores

2,653 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: A review of the toxicity of nanoparticles is presented in this paper, with the goal of informing public health concerns related to nanoscience while raising awareness of nanomaterials toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them.
Abstract: This review is written with the goal of informing public health concerns related to nanoscience, while raising awareness of nanomaterials toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to nanoparticles and dust from natural sources and human activities, the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation profoundly increasing anthropogenic nanoparticulate pollution. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. Among diseases associated with nanoparticles are asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson`s and Alzheimer`s diseases), Crohn`s disease, colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are related to occurrence of arteriosclerosis, and blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately cardiac death. We show that possible adverse effects of nanoparticles on human health depend on individual factors such as genetics and existing disease, as well as exposure, and nanoparticle chemistry, size, shape, and agglomeration state. The faster we will understand their causes and mechanisms, the more likely we are to find cures for diseases associated with nanoparticle exposure. We foresee a future with better-informed, and hopefully more cautious manipulation of engineered nanomaterials, as well as the development of laws and policies for safely managing all aspects of nanomaterial manufacturing, industrial and commercial use, and recycling.

2,652 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review reveals the result of life’s long history of evolution in the presence of nanoparticles, and how the human body has adapted to defend itself against nanoparticulate intruders, while raising awareness of nanomaterials’ toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them.
Abstract: This review is presented as a common foundation for scientists interested in nanoparticles, their origin, activity, and biological toxicity. It is written with the goal of rationalizing and informing public health concerns related to this sometimes-strange new science of “nano,” while raising awareness of nanomaterials’ toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to tiny particles via dust storms, volcanic ash, and other natural processes, and that our bodily systems are well adapted to protect us from these potentially harmful intruders. The reticuloendothelial system, in particular, actively neutralizes and eliminates foreign matter in the body, including viruses and nonbiological particles. Particles originating from human activities have existed for millennia, e.g., smoke from combustion and lint from garments, but the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation has profoundly increased anthropogenic particulate pollution. Significantly, technological advancement has also changed the character of particulate pollution, increasing the proportion of nanometer-sized particles-“nanoparticles”-and expanding the variety of chemical compositions. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between particulate air pollution levels, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, various cancers, and mortality. Adverse effects of nanoparticles on human health depend on individual factors such as genetics and existing disease, as well as exposure, and nanoparticle chemistry, size, shape, agglomeration state, and electromagnetic properties. Animal and human studies show that inhaled nanoparticles are less efficiently removed than larger particles by the macrophage clearance mechanisms in the lungs, causing lung damage, and that nanoparticles can translocate through the circulatory, lymphatic, and nervous systems to many tissues and organs, including the brain. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. Examples of toxic effects include tissue inflammation, and altered cellular redox balance toward oxidation, causing abnormal function or cell death. The manipulation of matter at the scale of atoms, “nanotechnology,” is creating many new materials with characteristics not always easily predicted from current knowledge. Within the nearly limitless diversity of these materials, some happen to be toxic to biological systems, others are relatively benign, while others confer health benefits. Some of these materials have desirable characteristics for industrial applications, as nanostructured materials often exhibit beneficial properties, from UV absorbance in sunscreen to oil-less lubrication of motors. A rational science-based approach is needed to minimize harm caused by these materials, while supporting continued study and appropriate industrial development. As current knowledge of the toxicology of “bulk” materials may not suffice in reliably predicting toxic forms of nanoparticles, ongoing and expanded study of “nanotoxicity” will be necessary. For nanotechnologies with clearly associated health risks, intelligent design of materials and devices is needed to derive the benefits of these new technologies while limiting adverse health impacts. Human exposure to toxic nanoparticles can be reduced through identifying creation-exposure pathways of toxins, a study that may someday soon unravel the mysteries of diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Reduction in fossil fuel combustion would have a large impact on global human exposure to nanoparticles, as would limiting deforestation and desertification. While nanotoxicity is a relatively new concept to science, this review reveals the result of life’s long history of evolution in the presence of nanoparticles, and how the human body, in particular, has adapted to defend itself against nanoparticulate intruders.

2,598 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Green et al. as mentioned in this paper presented consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules, and guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2014 are reviewed.
Abstract: Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2014 are reviewed. URI: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pip.2573/pdf [1] Authors: GREEN Martin A. EMERY Keith HISHIKAWA Y. WARTA W. DUNLOP Ewan Publication Year: 2015 Type: Articles in Journals

2,511 citations