Other affiliations: French Institute of Health and Medical Research, École Normale Supérieure, European University of Brittany ...read more
Bio: Christian Roux is an academic researcher from Institut Mines-Télécom. The author has contributed to research in topics: Digital watermarking & Watermark. The author has an hindex of 31, co-authored 95 publications receiving 3531 citations. Previous affiliations of Christian Roux include French Institute of Health and Medical Research & École Normale Supérieure.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The overall results show that microaneurysm detection is a challenging task for both the automatic methods as well as the human expert, and there is room for improvement as the best performing system does not reach the performance of thehuman expert.
Abstract: The detection of microaneurysms in digital color fundus photographs is a critical first step in automated screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common complication of diabetes. To accomplish this detection numerous methods have been published in the past but none of these was compared with each other on the same data. In this work we present the results of the first international microaneurysm detection competition, organized in the context of the Retinopathy Online Challenge (ROC), a multiyear online competition for various aspects of DR detection. For this competition, we compare the results of five different methods, produced by five different teams of researchers on the same set of data. The evaluation was performed in a uniform manner using an algorithm presented in this work. The set of data used for the competition consisted of 50 training images with available reference standard and 50 test images where the reference standard was withheld by the organizers (M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, and M. D. AbrA?moff). The results obtained on the test data was submitted through a website after which standardized evaluation software was used to determine the performance of each of the methods. A human expert detected microaneurysms in the test set to allow comparison with the performance of the automatic methods. The overall results show that microaneurysm detection is a challenging task for both the automatic methods as well as the human expert. There is room for improvement as the best performing system does not reach the performance of the human expert. The data associated with the ROC microaneurysm detection competition will remain publicly available and the website will continue accepting submissions.
TL;DR: An automatic method to detect microaneurysms in retina photographs by locally matching a lesion template in sub- bands of wavelet transformed images is proposed, based on a genetic algorithm followed by Powell's direction set descent.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an automatic method to detect microaneurysms in retina photographs. Microaneurysms are the most frequent and usually the first lesions to appear as a consequence of diabetic retinopathy. So, their detection is necessary for both screening the pathology and follow up (progression measurement). Automating this task, which is currently performed manually, would bring more objectivity and reproducibility. We propose to detect them by locally matching a lesion template in sub- bands of wavelet transformed images. To improve the method performance, we have searched for the best adapted wavelet within the lifting scheme framework. The optimization process is based on a genetic algorithm followed by Powell's direction set descent. Results are evaluated on 120 retinal images analyzed by an expert and the optimal wavelet is compared to different conventional mother wavelets. These images are of three different modalities: there are color photographs, green filtered photographs, and angiographs. Depending on the imaging modality, microaneurysms were detected with a sensitivity of respectively 89.62%, 90.24%, and 93.74% and a positive predictive value of respectively 89.50%, 89.75%, and 91.67%, which is better than previously published methods.
TL;DR: Results show that FLAB performs better than the other methodologies, particularly for smaller objects, and future developments will concentrate on an extension of FLAB in order to allow the segmentation of separate activity distribution regions within the same functional volume.
Abstract: Accurate volume estimation in positron emission tomography (PET) is crucial for different oncology applications. The objective of our study was to develop a new fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) segmentation for automatic lesion volume delineation. FLAB was compared with a threshold approach as well as the previously proposed fuzzy hidden Markov chains (FHMC) and the fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithms. The performance of the algorithms was assessed on acquired datasets of the IEC phantom, covering a range of spherical lesion sizes (10-37 mm), contrast ratios (4:1 and 8:1), noise levels (1, 2, and 5 min acquisitions), and voxel sizes (8 and 64 mm3). In addition, the performance of the FLAB model was assessed on realistic nonuniform and nonspherical volumes simulated from patient lesions. Results show that FLAB performs better than the other methodologies, particularly for smaller objects. The volume error was 5%-15% for the different sphere sizes (down to 13 mm), contrast and image qualities considered, with a high reproducibility (variation < 4%). By comparison, the thresholding results were greatly dependent on image contrast and noise, whereas FCM results were less dependent on noise but consistently failed to segment lesions < 2 cm. In addition, FLAB performed consistently better for lesions < 2 cm in comparison to the FHMC algorithm. Finally the FLAB model provided errors less than 10% for nonspherical lesions with inhomogeneous activity distributions. Future developments will concentrate on an extension of FLAB in order to allow the segmentation of separate activity distribution regions within the same functional volume as well as a robustness study with respect to different scanners and reconstruction algorithms.
TL;DR: A new reversible watermarking scheme that can insert more data with lower distortion than any existing schemes and achieve a peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of about 1-2 dB greater than with the scheme of Hwang, the most efficient approach actually.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new reversible watermarking scheme. One first contribution is a histogram shifting modulation which adaptively takes care of the local specificities of the image content. By applying it to the image prediction-errors and by considering their immediate neighborhood, the scheme we propose inserts data in textured areas where other methods fail to do so. Furthermore, our scheme makes use of a classification process for identifying parts of the image that can be watermarked with the most suited reversible modulation. This classification is based on a reference image derived from the image itself, a prediction of it, which has the property of being invariant to the watermark insertion. In that way, the watermark embedder and extractor remain synchronized for message extraction and image reconstruction. The experiments conducted so far, on some natural images and on medical images from different modalities, show that for capacities smaller than 0.4 bpp, our method can insert more data with lower distortion than any existing schemes. For the same capacity, we achieve a peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of about 1-2 dB greater than with the scheme of Hwang , the most efficient approach actually.
••01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: It is concluded that watermarking has found a niche role in healthcare systems, as an instrument for protection of medical information, for secure sharing and handling of medical images.
Abstract: In this article, we focus on the complementary role of watermarking with respect to medical information security (integrity, authenticity ) and management We review sample cases where watermarking has been deployed, we conclude that watermarking has found a niche role in healthcare systems, as an instrument for protection of medical information, for secure sharing and handling of medical images The concern of medical experts on the preservation of documents diagnostic integrity remains paramount
TL;DR: An algorithm based on deep machine learning had high sensitivity and specificity for detecting referable diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in retinal fundus photographs from adults with diabetes.
Abstract: Importance Deep learning is a family of computational methods that allow an algorithm to program itself by learning from a large set of examples that demonstrate the desired behavior, removing the need to specify rules explicitly. Application of these methods to medical imaging requires further assessment and validation. Objective To apply deep learning to create an algorithm for automated detection of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in retinal fundus photographs. Design and Setting A specific type of neural network optimized for image classification called a deep convolutional neural network was trained using a retrospective development data set of 128 175 retinal images, which were graded 3 to 7 times for diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, and image gradability by a panel of 54 US licensed ophthalmologists and ophthalmology senior residents between May and December 2015. The resultant algorithm was validated in January and February 2016 using 2 separate data sets, both graded by at least 7 US board-certified ophthalmologists with high intragrader consistency. Exposure Deep learning–trained algorithm. Main Outcomes and Measures The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm for detecting referable diabetic retinopathy (RDR), defined as moderate and worse diabetic retinopathy, referable diabetic macular edema, or both, were generated based on the reference standard of the majority decision of the ophthalmologist panel. The algorithm was evaluated at 2 operating points selected from the development set, one selected for high specificity and another for high sensitivity. Results The EyePACS-1 data set consisted of 9963 images from 4997 patients (mean age, 54.4 years; 62.2% women; prevalence of RDR, 683/8878 fully gradable images [7.8%]); the Messidor-2 data set had 1748 images from 874 patients (mean age, 57.6 years; 42.6% women; prevalence of RDR, 254/1745 fully gradable images [14.6%]). For detecting RDR, the algorithm had an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.991 (95% CI, 0.988-0.993) for EyePACS-1 and 0.990 (95% CI, 0.986-0.995) for Messidor-2. Using the first operating cut point with high specificity, for EyePACS-1, the sensitivity was 90.3% (95% CI, 87.5%-92.7%) and the specificity was 98.1% (95% CI, 97.8%-98.5%). For Messidor-2, the sensitivity was 87.0% (95% CI, 81.1%-91.0%) and the specificity was 98.5% (95% CI, 97.7%-99.1%). Using a second operating point with high sensitivity in the development set, for EyePACS-1 the sensitivity was 97.5% and specificity was 93.4% and for Messidor-2 the sensitivity was 96.1% and specificity was 93.9%. Conclusions and Relevance In this evaluation of retinal fundus photographs from adults with diabetes, an algorithm based on deep machine learning had high sensitivity and specificity for detecting referable diabetic retinopathy. Further research is necessary to determine the feasibility of applying this algorithm in the clinical setting and to determine whether use of the algorithm could lead to improved care and outcomes compared with current ophthalmologic assessment.
Technische Universität München1, ETH Zurich2, University of Bern3, Harvard University4, National Institutes of Health5, University of Debrecen6, University Hospital Heidelberg7, McGill University8, University of Pennsylvania9, French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation10, University at Buffalo11, Microsoft12, University of Cambridge13, Stanford University14, University of Virginia15, Imperial College London16, Massachusetts Institute of Technology17, Columbia University18, Sabancı University19, Old Dominion University20, RMIT University21, Purdue University22, General Electric23
TL;DR: The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) as mentioned in this paper was organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences, and twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low and high grade glioma patients.
Abstract: In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low- and high-grade glioma patients—manually annotated by up to four raters—and to 65 comparable scans generated using tumor image simulation software Quantitative evaluations revealed considerable disagreement between the human raters in segmenting various tumor sub-regions (Dice scores in the range 74%–85%), illustrating the difficulty of this task We found that different algorithms worked best for different sub-regions (reaching performance comparable to human inter-rater variability), but that no single algorithm ranked in the top for all sub-regions simultaneously Fusing several good algorithms using a hierarchical majority vote yielded segmentations that consistently ranked above all individual algorithms, indicating remaining opportunities for further methodological improvements The BRATS image data and manual annotations continue to be publicly available through an online evaluation system as an ongoing benchmarking resource
01 Apr 1997
TL;DR: The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive introduction to applied cryptography with an engineer or computer scientist in mind on the knowledge needed to create practical systems which supports integrity, confidentiality, or authenticity.
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive introduction to applied cryptography with an engineer or computer scientist in mind. The emphasis is on the knowledge needed to create practical systems which supports integrity, confidentiality, or authenticity. Topics covered includes an introduction to the concepts in cryptography, attacks against cryptographic systems, key use and handling, random bit generation, encryption modes, and message authentication codes. Recommendations on algorithms and further reading is given in the end of the paper. This paper should make the reader able to build, understand and evaluate system descriptions and designs based on the cryptographic components described in the paper.
01 May 1995
TL;DR: Methods for 2-D fundus imaging and techniques for 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are reviewed and aspects of image acquisition, image analysis, and clinical relevance are treated together considering their mutually interlinked relationships.
Abstract: Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindness in the industrialized world that includes age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, the review is devoted to retinal imaging and image analysis methods and their clinical implications. Methods for 2-D fundus imaging and techniques for 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are reviewed. Special attention is given to quantitative techniques for analysis of fundus photographs with a focus on clinically relevant assessment of retinal vasculature, identification of retinal lesions, assessment of optic nerve head (ONH) shape, building retinal atlases, and to automated methods for population screening for retinal diseases. A separate section is devoted to 3-D analysis of OCT images, describing methods for segmentation and analysis of retinal layers, retinal vasculature, and 2-D/3-D detection of symptomatic exudate-associated derangements, as well as to OCT-based analysis of ONH morphology and shape. Throughout the paper, aspects of image acquisition, image analysis, and clinical relevance are treated together considering their mutually interlinked relationships.