Bio: Christina Gloeckner is an academic researcher. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 4845 citations.
01 Jan 2016
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01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: random forests are proposed, which add an additional layer of randomness to bagging and are robust against overfitting, and the randomForest package provides an R interface to the Fortran programs by Breiman and Cutler.
Abstract: Recently there has been a lot of interest in “ensemble learning” — methods that generate many classifiers and aggregate their results. Two well-known methods are boosting (see, e.g., Shapire et al., 1998) and bagging Breiman (1996) of classification trees. In boosting, successive trees give extra weight to points incorrectly predicted by earlier predictors. In the end, a weighted vote is taken for prediction. In bagging, successive trees do not depend on earlier trees — each is independently constructed using a bootstrap sample of the data set. In the end, a simple majority vote is taken for prediction. Breiman (2001) proposed random forests, which add an additional layer of randomness to bagging. In addition to constructing each tree using a different bootstrap sample of the data, random forests change how the classification or regression trees are constructed. In standard trees, each node is split using the best split among all variables. In a random forest, each node is split using the best among a subset of predictors randomly chosen at that node. This somewhat counterintuitive strategy turns out to perform very well compared to many other classifiers, including discriminant analysis, support vector machines and neural networks, and is robust against overfitting (Breiman, 2001). In addition, it is very user-friendly in the sense that it has only two parameters (the number of variables in the random subset at each node and the number of trees in the forest), and is usually not very sensitive to their values. The randomForest package provides an R interface to the Fortran programs by Breiman and Cutler (available at http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/ users/breiman/). This article provides a brief introduction to the usage and features of the R functions.
TL;DR: pROC as mentioned in this paper is a package for R and S+ that contains a set of tools displaying, analyzing, smoothing and comparing ROC curves in a user-friendly, object-oriented and flexible interface.
Abstract: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are useful tools to evaluate classifiers in biomedical and bioinformatics applications. However, conclusions are often reached through inconsistent use or insufficient statistical analysis. To support researchers in their ROC curves analysis we developed pROC, a package for R and S+ that contains a set of tools displaying, analyzing, smoothing and comparing ROC curves in a user-friendly, object-oriented and flexible interface. With data previously imported into the R or S+ environment, the pROC package builds ROC curves and includes functions for computing confidence intervals, statistical tests for comparing total or partial area under the curve or the operating points of different classifiers, and methods for smoothing ROC curves. Intermediary and final results are visualised in user-friendly interfaces. A case study based on published clinical and biomarker data shows how to perform a typical ROC analysis with pROC. pROC is a package for R and S+ specifically dedicated to ROC analysis. It proposes multiple statistical tests to compare ROC curves, and in particular partial areas under the curve, allowing proper ROC interpretation. pROC is available in two versions: in the R programming language or with a graphical user interface in the S+ statistical software. It is accessible at http://expasy.org/tools/pROC/ under the GNU General Public License. It is also distributed through the CRAN and CSAN public repositories, facilitating its installation.
TL;DR: The caret package, short for classification and regression training, contains numerous tools for developing predictive models using the rich set of models available in R to simplify model training and tuning across a wide variety of modeling techniques.
Abstract: The caret package, short for classification and regression training, contains numerous tools for developing predictive models using the rich set of models available in R. The package focuses on simplifying model training and tuning across a wide variety of modeling techniques. It also includes methods for pre-processing training data, calculating variable importance, and model visualizations. An example from computational chemistry is used to illustrate the functionality on a real data set and to benchmark the benefits of parallel processing with several types of models.
17 May 2013
TL;DR: This research presents a novel and scalable approach called “Smartfitting” that automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and therefore expensive and expensive process of designing and implementing statistical models for regression models.
Abstract: General Strategies.- Regression Models.- Classification Models.- Other Considerations.- Appendix.- References.- Indices.
TL;DR: It is found that the Illumina sequencing data are highly replicable, with relatively little technical variation, and thus, for many purposes, it may suffice to sequence each mRNA sample only once (i.e., using one lane).
Abstract: Ultra-high-throughput sequencing is emerging as an attractive alternative to microarrays for genotyping, analysis of methylation patterns, and identification of transcription factor binding sites. Here, we describe an application of the Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) platform to study mRNA expression levels. Our goals were to estimate technical variance associated with Illumina sequencing in this context and to compare its ability to identify differentially expressed genes with existing array technologies. To do so, we estimated gene expression differences between liver and kidney RNA samples using multiple sequencing replicates, and compared the sequencing data to results obtained from Affymetrix arrays using the same RNA samples. We find that the Illumina sequencing data are highly replicable, with relatively little technical variation, and thus, for many purposes, it may suffice to sequence each mRNA sample only once (i.e., using one lane). The information in a single lane of Illumina sequencing data appears comparable to that in a single array in enabling identification of differentially expressed genes, while allowing for additional analyses such as detection of low-expressed genes, alternative splice variants, and novel transcripts. Based on our observations, we propose an empirical protocol and a statistical framework for the analysis of gene expression using ultra-high-throughput sequencing technology.