Bio: Christina Schwarz is an academic researcher from University of Rochester. The author has contributed to research in topics: Binocular vision & Retina. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 31 publications receiving 481 citations. Previous affiliations of Christina Schwarz include University of Tübingen & University of Murcia.
TL;DR: The capability to noninvasively image RGC layer neurons in the living eye may one day allow for a better understanding of diseases, such as glaucoma, and accelerate the development of therapeutic strategies that aim to protect these cells.
Abstract: Although imaging of the living retina with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) provides microscopic access to individual cells, such as photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and blood cells in the retinal vasculature, other important cell classes, such as retinal ganglion cells, have proven much more challenging to image. The near transparency of inner retinal cells is advantageous for vision, as light must pass through them to reach the photoreceptors, but it has prevented them from being directly imaged in vivo. Here we show that the individual somas of neurons within the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer can be imaged with a modification of confocal AOSLO, in both monkeys and humans. Human images of RGC layer neurons did not match the quality of monkey images for several reasons, including safety concerns that limited the light levels permissible for human imaging. We also show that the same technique applied to the photoreceptor layer can resolve ambiguity about cone survival in age-related macular degeneration. The capability to noninvasively image RGC layer neurons in the living eye may one day allow for a better understanding of diseases, such as glaucoma, and accelerate the development of therapeutic strategies that aim to protect these cells. This method may also prove useful for imaging other structures, such as neurons in the brain.
TL;DR: The small-aperture effect to increase depth of focus in the human eye was successfully implemented in a binocular visual simulator and provided a simple but attractive solution to increase Depth of focusIn the humanEye.
Abstract: PURPOSE. To investigate binocular visual acuity and depth of focus when one eye forms images through a typical pupil diameter aperture (4 mm) and the other eye through a small pupil of 1.5-mm diameter. METHODS. Using a recently developed adaptive optics binocular visual simulator, through focus monocular and binocular visual acuity were measured in three subjects under specially simulated visual conditions: right eyes had “small aperture” vision through a 1.5-mm pupil diameter and left eyes had normal vision through 4-mm pupil diameter. The measurements were performed in photopic and mesopic conditions. RESULTS. An increase in binocular and monocular (for the smallaperture eye) depth of focus was measured with respect to the 4-mm pupil diameter eye. It ranged from 1 to 1.5 diopter (D) depending on the threshold requirement and the visibility conditions. For photopic conditions, the J2 visual acuity level was reached a t1Do fdefocus for the 4-mm pupil diameter case, while for the 1.5-mm, the J2 level was reached at 2.5 D. Binocular summation occurred only in far vision conditions (no defocus added). For near vision, binocular visual acuity closely followed the values of monocular visual acuity for the eye with the smaller aperture. CONCLUSIONS. The small-aperture effect to increase depth of focus in the human eye was successfully implemented in a binocular visual simulator. Although certain limitations exist, the smallaperture approach provided a simple but attractive solution to increase depth of focus in the human eye. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5273–5277) DOI:10.1167/iovs.10-6436
TL;DR: The results of the experiment suggest that combining micro-monovision with a small aperture, which is currently being implemented as a corneal inlay, can yield values of stereoacuity close to those attained under normal binocular vision.
Abstract: Some of the different currently applied approaches that correct presbyopia may reduce stereovision. In this work, stereo-acuity was measured for two methods: (1) monovision and (2) small aperture inlay in one eye. When performing the experiment, a prototype of a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer was employed. The system allowed simultaneous measurement and manipulation of the optics in both eyes of a subject. The apparatus incorporated two programmable spatial light modulators: one phase-only device using liquid crystal on silicon technology for wavefront manipulation and one intensity modulator for controlling the exit pupils. The prototype was also equipped with a stimulus generator for creating retinal disparity based on two micro-displays. The three-needle test was programmed for characterizing stereo-acuity. Subjects underwent a two-alternative forced-choice test. The following cases were tested for the stimulus placed at distance: (a) natural vision; (b) 1.5 D monovision; (c) 0.75 D monovision; (d) natural vision and small pupil; (e) 0.75 D monovision and small pupil. In all cases the standard pupil diameter was 4 mm and the small pupil diameter was 1.6 mm. The use of a small aperture significantly reduced the negative impact of monovision on stereopsis. The results of the experiment suggest that combining micro-monovision with a small aperture, which is currently being implemented as a corneal inlay, can yield values of stereoacuity close to those attained under normal binocular vision.
TL;DR: A binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer fully capable of controlling both amplitude and phase of the two complex pupil functions in each eye of the subject, which proves to be extremely versatile for designing and testing novel ophthalmic elements and simulating visual outcomes.
Abstract: We present a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer fully capable of controlling both amplitude and phase of the two complex pupil functions in each eye of the subject. A special feature of the instrument is its comparatively simple setup. A single reflective liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator working in pure phase modulation generates the phase profiles for both pupils simultaneously. In addition, another liquid crystal spatial light modulator working in transmission operates in pure intensity modulation to produce a large variety of pupil masks for each eye. Subjects perform visual tasks through any predefined variations of the complex pupil function for both eyes. As an example of the system efficiency, we recorded images of the stimuli through the system as they were projected at the subject’s retina. This instrument proves to be extremely versatile for designing and testing novel ophthalmic elements and simulating visual outcomes, as well as for further research of binocular vision.
TL;DR: Bilateral correction of both SA and LCA may further improve binocular spatial visual acuity which may support the use of aspheric-achromatic ophthalmic devices, in particular, intraocular lenses (IOLs).
Abstract: Correction of spherical (SA) and longitudinal chromatic aberrations (LCA) significantly improves monocular visual acuity (VA). In this work, the visual effect of SA correction in polychromatic and monochromatic light on binocular visual performance is investigated. A liquid crystal based binocular adaptive optics visual analyzer capable of operating in polychromatic light is employed in this study. Binocular VA improves when SA is corrected and LCA effects are reduced separately and in combination, resulting in the highest value for SA correction in monochromatic light. However, the binocular summation ratio is highest for the baseline condition of uncorrected SA in polychromatic light. Although SA correction in monochromatic light has a greater impact monocularly than binocularly, bilateral correction of both SA and LCA may further improve binocular spatial visual acuity which may support the use of aspheric-achromatic ophthalmic devices, in particular, intraocular lenses (IOLs).
TL;DR: In this article, optical coherence tomography is used for high-resolution, noninvasive imaging of the human retina, including the macula and optic nerve head in normal human subjects.
Abstract: Objective: To demonstrate optical coherence tomography for high-resolution, noninvasive imaging of the human retina. Optical coherence tomography is a new imaging technique analogous to ultrasound B scan that can provide cross-sectional images of the retina with micrometer-scale resolution. Design: Survey optical coherence tomographic examination of the retina, including the macula and optic nerve head in normal human subjects. Settings Research laboratory. Participants: Convenience sample of normal human subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Correlation of optical coherence retinal tomographs with known normal retinal anatomy. Results: Optical coherence tomographs can discriminate the cross-sectional morphologic features of the fovea and optic disc, the layered structure of the retina, and normal anatomic variations in retinal and retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses with 10- μm depth resolution. Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography is a potentially useful technique for high depth resolution, cross-sectional examination of the fundus.
01 Jan 1982
TL;DR: "Graefe's Archive" is a distinguished international journal that presents original clinical reports and clinically relevant experimental studies and provides rapid dissemination of clinical and clinically related experimental information.
Abstract: "Graefe's Archive" is a distinguished international journal that presents original clinical reports and clinically relevant experimental studies. Founded in 1854 by Albrecht von Graefe to serve as a source of useful clinical information and a stimulus for discussion, the journal has published articles by leading ophthalmologists and vision research scientists for more than a century. With peer review by an international Editorial Board and prompt English-language publication, "Graefe's Archive" provides rapid dissemination of clinical and clinically related experimental information.
TL;DR: It was found that chirality plays a significant role in the mechanism of contrast generation, and it is also shown that SHIM is highly sensitive to membrane potential, with a depolarization of 25 mV resulting in an approximately twofold loss of signal intensity.
Abstract: By adapting a laser scanning microscope with a titanium sapphire femtosecond pulsed laser and transmission optics, we are able to produce live cell images based on the nonlinear optical phenomenon of second harmonic generation (SHG). Second harmonic imaging (SHIM) is an ideal method for probing membranes of living cells because it offers the high resolution of nonlinear optical microscopy with the potential for near-total avoidance of photobleaching and phototoxicity. The technique has been implemented on three cell lines labeled with membrane-staining dyes that have large nonlinear optical coefficients. The images can be obtained within physiologically relevant time scales. Both achiral and chiral dyes were used to compare image formation for the case of single- and double-leaflet staining, and it was found that chirality plays a significant role in the mechanism of contrast generation. It is also shown that SHIM is highly sensitive to membrane potential, with a depolarization of 25 mV resulting in an approximately twofold loss of signal intensity.
TL;DR: A new unified formula is developed that incorporates the effects of luminance, size of the adapting field, age of the observer, and whether one or both eyes are adapted.
Abstract: The size of the pupil has a large effect on visual function, and pupil size depends mainly on the adapting luminance, modulated by other factors. Over the last century, a number of formulas have been proposed to describe this dependence. Here we review seven published formulas and develop a new unified formula that incorporates the effects of luminance, size of the adapting field, age of the observer, and whether one or both eyes are adapted. We provide interactive demonstrations and software implementations of the unified formula.
TL;DR: In this paper, three-dimensional maps of cellular metabolic oxidation/reduction states of rabbit cornea in situ were obtained by imaging the fluorescence of the naturally occurring reduced pyridine nucleotides.
Abstract: Three‐dimensional maps of cellular metabolic oxidation/reduction states of rabbit cornea in situ were obtained by imaging the fluorescence of the naturally occurring reduced pyridine nucleotides (both reduced nicotinamide‐adenine dinucleotide, NADH, and reduced nicotinamide‐adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NADPH, denoted here as NAD(P)H). Autofluorescence images with submicrometre lateral resolution were obtained throughout the entire 400 μm thickness of the cornea. Two‐photon excitation scanning laser microscopy with near‐infrared excitation provided high fluorescence collection efficiency, reduced photodamage, and eliminated ultraviolet chromatic aberration, all of which have previously degraded the visualization of pyridine nucleotide fluorescence. Sharp autofluorescence images of the basal epithelium (40 μm within the cornea) show substantial subcellular detail, providing the ability to monitor autofluorescence intensity changes over time, which reflect changes in oxidative metabolism and cellular dynamics necessary for maintenance of the ocular surface. The autofluorescence was confirmed to be mostly of NAD(P)H origin by cyanide exposure, which increased the fluorescence from all cell types in the cornea by about a factor of two. Autofluorescence images of individual keratocytes in the stroma were observed only after cyanide treatment, while in the predominant extracellular collagen (> 90% of the stromal volume), fluorescence was not distinguished from the background. Observation of keratocyte metabolism demonstrates the sensitivity made available by two‐photon microscopy for future redox fluorescence imaging of cellular metabolic states.