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Christof Koch

Bio: Christof Koch is an academic researcher from Allen Institute for Brain Science. The author has contributed to research in topics: Consciousness & Visual cortex. The author has an hindex of 141, co-authored 712 publications receiving 105221 citations. Previous affiliations of Christof Koch include University of Zurich & Hebrew University of Jerusalem.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a visual attention system inspired by the behavior and the neuronal architecture of the early primate visual system is presented, where multiscale image features are combined into a single topographical saliency map.
Abstract: A visual attention system, inspired by the behavior and the neuronal architecture of the early primate visual system, is presented. Multiscale image features are combined into a single topographical saliency map. A dynamical neural network then selects attended locations in order of decreasing saliency. The system breaks down the complex problem of scene understanding by rapidly selecting, in a computationally efficient manner, conspicuous locations to be analyzed in detail.

10,525 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Five important trends have emerged from recent work on computational models of focal visual attention that emphasize the bottom-up, image-based control of attentional deployment, providing a framework for a computational and neurobiological understanding of visual attention.
Abstract: Five important trends have emerged from recent work on computational models of focal visual attention that emphasize the bottom-up, image-based control of attentional deployment. First, the perceptual saliency of stimuli critically depends on the surrounding context. Second, a unique 'saliency map' that topographically encodes for stimulus conspicuity over the visual scene has proved to be an efficient and plausible bottom-up control strategy. Third, inhibition of return, the process by which the currently attended location is prevented from being attended again, is a crucial element of attentional deployment. Fourth, attention and eye movements tightly interplay, posing computational challenges with respect to the coordinate system used to control attention. And last, scene understanding and object recognition strongly constrain the selection of attended locations. Insights from these five key areas provide a framework for a computational and neurobiological understanding of visual attention.

4,485 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This study addresses the question of how simple networks of neuron-like elements can account for a variety of phenomena associated with this shift of selective visual attention and suggests a possible role for the extensive back-projection from the visual cortex to the LGN.
Abstract: Psychophysical and physiological evidence indicates that the visual system of primates and humans has evolved a specialized processing focus moving across the visual scene. This study addresses the question of how simple networks of neuron-like elements can account for a variety of phenomena associated with this shift of selective visual attention. Specifically, we propose the following: (1) A number of elementary features, such as color, orientation, direction of movement, disparity etc. are represented in parallel in different topographical maps, called the early representation. (2) There exists a selective mapping from the early topographic representation into a more central non-topographic representation, such that at any instant the central representation contains the properties of only a single location in the visual scene, the selected location. We suggest that this mapping is the principal expression of early selective visual attention. One function of selective attention is to fuse information from different maps into one coherent whole. (3) Certain selection rules determine which locations will be mapped into the central representation. The major rule, using the conspicuity of locations in the early representation, is implemented using a so-called Winner-Take-All network. Inhibiting the selected location in this network causes an automatic shift towards the next most conspicious location. Additional rules are proximity and similarity preferences. We discuss how these rules can be implemented in neuron-like networks and suggest a possible role for the extensive back-projection from the visual cortex to the LGN.

3,930 citations

Proceedings Article
04 Dec 2006
TL;DR: A new bottom-up visual saliency model, Graph-Based Visual Saliency (GBVS), is proposed, which powerfully predicts human fixations on 749 variations of 108 natural images, achieving 98% of the ROC area of a human-based control, whereas the classical algorithms of Itti & Koch achieve only 84%.
Abstract: A new bottom-up visual saliency model, Graph-Based Visual Saliency (GBVS), is proposed It consists of two steps: first forming activation maps on certain feature channels, and then normalizing them in a way which highlights conspicuity and admits combination with other maps The model is simple, and biologically plausible insofar as it is naturally parallelized This model powerfully predicts human fixations on 749 variations of 108 natural images, achieving 98% of the ROC area of a human-based control, whereas the classical algorithms of Itti & Koch ([2], [3], [4]) achieve only 84%

3,475 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High-density recordings of field activity in animals and subdural grid recordings in humans can provide insight into the cooperative behaviour of neurons, their average synaptic input and their spiking output, and can increase the understanding of how these processes contribute to the extracellular signal.
Abstract: Neuronal activity in the brain gives rise to transmembrane currents that can be measured in the extracellular medium. Although the major contributor of the extracellular signal is the synaptic transmembrane current, other sources — including Na+ and Ca2+ spikes, ionic fluxes through voltage- and ligand-gated channels, and intrinsic membrane oscillations — can substantially shape the extracellular field. High-density recordings of field activity in animals and subdural grid recordings in humans, combined with recently developed data processing tools and computational modelling, can provide insight into the cooperative behaviour of neurons, their average synaptic input and their spiking output, and can increase our understanding of how these processes contribute to the extracellular signal.

3,366 citations


Cited by
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Book
18 Nov 2016
TL;DR: Deep learning as mentioned in this paper is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts, and it is used in many applications such as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames.
Abstract: Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.

38,208 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) as mentioned in this paper is a benchmark in object category classification and detection on hundreds of object categories and millions of images, which has been run annually from 2010 to present, attracting participation from more than fifty institutions.
Abstract: The ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge is a benchmark in object category classification and detection on hundreds of object categories and millions of images. The challenge has been run annually from 2010 to present, attracting participation from more than fifty institutions. This paper describes the creation of this benchmark dataset and the advances in object recognition that have been possible as a result. We discuss the challenges of collecting large-scale ground truth annotation, highlight key breakthroughs in categorical object recognition, provide a detailed analysis of the current state of the field of large-scale image classification and object detection, and compare the state-of-the-art computer vision accuracy with human accuracy. We conclude with lessons learned in the 5 years of the challenge, and propose future directions and improvements.

30,811 citations

28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2001
TL;DR: A machine learning approach for visual object detection which is capable of processing images extremely rapidly and achieving high detection rates and the introduction of a new image representation called the "integral image" which allows the features used by the detector to be computed very quickly.
Abstract: This paper describes a machine learning approach for visual object detection which is capable of processing images extremely rapidly and achieving high detection rates. This work is distinguished by three key contributions. The first is the introduction of a new image representation called the "integral image" which allows the features used by our detector to be computed very quickly. The second is a learning algorithm, based on AdaBoost, which selects a small number of critical visual features from a larger set and yields extremely efficient classifiers. The third contribution is a method for combining increasingly more complex classifiers in a "cascade" which allows background regions of the image to be quickly discarded while spending more computation on promising object-like regions. The cascade can be viewed as an object specific focus-of-attention mechanism which unlike previous approaches provides statistical guarantees that discarded regions are unlikely to contain the object of interest. In the domain of face detection the system yields detection rates comparable to the best previous systems. Used in real-time applications, the detector runs at 15 frames per second without resorting to image differencing or skin color detection.

18,620 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work uses snakes for interactive interpretation, in which user-imposed constraint forces guide the snake near features of interest, and uses scale-space continuation to enlarge the capture region surrounding a feature.
Abstract: A snake is an energy-minimizing spline guided by external constraint forces and influenced by image forces that pull it toward features such as lines and edges. Snakes are active contour models: they lock onto nearby edges, localizing them accurately. Scale-space continuation can be used to enlarge the capture region surrounding a feature. Snakes provide a unified account of a number of visual problems, including detection of edges, lines, and subjective contours; motion tracking; and stereo matching. We have used snakes successfully for interactive interpretation, in which user-imposed constraint forces guide the snake near features of interest.

18,095 citations