Author

# Christopher J. Cramer

Other affiliations: Johns Hopkins University, Urbana University, University of Maryland, College Park ...read more

Bio: Christopher J. Cramer is an academic researcher from University of Minnesota. The author has contributed to research in topics: Solvation & Density functional theory. The author has an hindex of 93, co-authored 565 publications receiving 50075 citations. Previous affiliations of Christopher J. Cramer include Johns Hopkins University & Urbana University.

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TL;DR: The SMD model may be employed with other algorithms for solving the nonhomogeneous Poisson equation for continuum solvation calculations in which the solute is represented by its electron density in real space, including, for example, the conductor-like screening algorithm.

Abstract: We present a new continuum solvation model based on the quantum mechanical charge density of a solute molecule interacting with a continuum description of the solvent. The model is called SMD, where the “D” stands for “density” to denote that the full solute electron density is used without defining partial atomic charges. “Continuum” denotes that the solvent is not represented explicitly but rather as a dielectric medium with surface tension at the solute−solvent boundary. SMD is a universal solvation model, where “universal” denotes its applicability to any charged or uncharged solute in any solvent or liquid medium for which a few key descriptors are known (in particular, dielectric constant, refractive index, bulk surface tension, and acidity and basicity parameters). The model separates the observable solvation free energy into two main components. The first component is the bulk electrostatic contribution arising from a self-consistent reaction field treatment that involves the solution of the nonho...

10,945 citations

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Yihan Shao, Zhengting Gan, Evgeny Epifanovsky

^{1}, Andrew T. B. Gilbert^{2}+153 more•Institutions (37)TL;DR: A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided in this paper, covering approximately the last seven years, including developments in density functional theory and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces.

Abstract: A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Moller–Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly correlated Cr_2 dimer, exploring zeolite-catalysed ethane dehydrogenation, energy decomposition analysis of a charged ter-molecular complex arising from glycerol photoionisation, and natural transition orbitals for a Frenkel exciton state in a nine-unit model of a self-assembling nanotube.

2,396 citations

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2,088 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce density functional theory and review recent progress in its application to transition metal chemistry, including local, meta, hybrid, hybrid meta, and range-separated functionals, band theory, software, validation tests, and applications to spin states, magnetic exchange coupling, spectra, structure, reactivity, and solids.

Abstract: We introduce density functional theory and review recent progress in its application to transition metal chemistry. Topics covered include local, meta, hybrid, hybrid meta, and range-separated functionals, band theory, software, validation tests, and applications to spin states, magnetic exchange coupling, spectra, structure, reactivity, and catalysis, including molecules, clusters, nanoparticles, surfaces, and solids.

1,449 citations

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26 Apr 2002

TL;DR: In this paper, Hartree-Fock et al. proposed a simulation of molecular electron correlation in molecular orbital theory, including charge distribution and Spectroscopic properties of charge distribution.

Abstract: What are Theory, Computation and Modeling? Molecular Mechanics Simulations of Molecular Ensembles Foundations of Molecular Orbital Theory Semiempirical Implementations of Molecular Orbital Theory Ab Initio Implementations of Hartree-Fock Molecular Orbital Theory Including Electron Correlation in Molecular Orbital Theory Density Functional Theory Charge Distribution and Spectroscopic Properties Thermodynamic Properties Implicit Models for Condensed Phases Explicit Models for Condensed Phases Hybrid Quantal/Classical Models Excited Electronic States Adiabatic Reaction Dynamics Appendix A Acronym Glossary Appendix B Symmetry and Group Theory Appendix C Spin Algebra Appendix D Orbital Localization

1,219 citations

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TL;DR: The revised DFT-D method is proposed as a general tool for the computation of the dispersion energy in molecules and solids of any kind with DFT and related (low-cost) electronic structure methods for large systems.

Abstract: The method of dispersion correction as an add-on to standard Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT-D) has been refined regarding higher accuracy, broader range of applicability, and less empiricism. The main new ingredients are atom-pairwise specific dispersion coefficients and cutoff radii that are both computed from first principles. The coefficients for new eighth-order dispersion terms are computed using established recursion relations. System (geometry) dependent information is used for the first time in a DFT-D type approach by employing the new concept of fractional coordination numbers (CN). They are used to interpolate between dispersion coefficients of atoms in different chemical environments. The method only requires adjustment of two global parameters for each density functional, is asymptotically exact for a gas of weakly interacting neutral atoms, and easily allows the computation of atomic forces. Three-body nonadditivity terms are considered. The method has been assessed on standard benchmark sets for inter- and intramolecular noncovalent interactions with a particular emphasis on a consistent description of light and heavy element systems. The mean absolute deviations for the S22 benchmark set of noncovalent interactions for 11 standard density functionals decrease by 15%-40% compared to the previous (already accurate) DFT-D version. Spectacular improvements are found for a tripeptide-folding model and all tested metallic systems. The rectification of the long-range behavior and the use of more accurate C(6) coefficients also lead to a much better description of large (infinite) systems as shown for graphene sheets and the adsorption of benzene on an Ag(111) surface. For graphene it is found that the inclusion of three-body terms substantially (by about 10%) weakens the interlayer binding. We propose the revised DFT-D method as a general tool for the computation of the dispersion energy in molecules and solids of any kind with DFT and related (low-cost) electronic structure methods for large systems.

32,589 citations

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TL;DR: The M06-2X meta-exchange correlation function is proposed in this paper, which is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, and is a high-non-locality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange.

Abstract: We present two new hybrid meta exchange- correlation functionals, called M06 and M06-2X. The M06 functional is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, whereas the M06-2X functional is a high-nonlocality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange (2X), and it is parametrized only for nonmetals.The functionals, along with the previously published M06-L local functional and the M06-HF full-Hartree–Fock functionals, constitute the M06 suite of complementary functionals. We assess these four functionals by comparing their performance to that of 12 other functionals and Hartree–Fock theory for 403 energetic data in 29 diverse databases, including ten databases for thermochemistry, four databases for kinetics, eight databases for noncovalent interactions, three databases for transition metal bonding, one database for metal atom excitation energies, and three databases for molecular excitation energies. We also illustrate the performance of these 17 methods for three databases containing 40 bond lengths and for databases containing 38 vibrational frequencies and 15 vibrational zero point energies. We recommend the M06-2X functional for applications involving main-group thermochemistry, kinetics, noncovalent interactions, and electronic excitation energies to valence and Rydberg states. We recommend the M06 functional for application in organometallic and inorganometallic chemistry and for noncovalent interactions.

22,326 citations

28 Jul 2005

TL;DR: PfPMP1）与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用，在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.

Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1（PfPMP1）与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用，在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员，通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

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TL;DR: Five practical examples involving a wide variety of systems and analysis methods are given to illustrate the usefulness of Multiwfn, a multifunctional program for wavefunction analysis.

Abstract: Multiwfn is a multifunctional program for wavefunction analysis. Its main functions are: (1) Calculating and visualizing real space function, such as electrostatic potential and electron localization function at point, in a line, in a plane or in a spatial scope. (2) Population analysis. (3) Bond order analysis. (4) Orbital composition analysis. (5) Plot density-of-states and spectrum. (6) Topology analysis for electron density. Some other useful utilities involved in quantum chemistry studies are also provided. The built-in graph module enables the results of wavefunction analysis to be plotted directly or exported to high-quality graphic file. The program interface is very user-friendly and suitable for both research and teaching purpose. The code of Multiwfn is substantially optimized and parallelized. Its efficiency is demonstrated to be significantly higher than related programs with the same functions. Five practical examples involving a wide variety of systems and analysis methods are given to illustrate the usefulness of Multiwfn. The program is free of charge and open-source. Its precompiled file and source codes are available from http://multiwfn.codeplex.com.

17,273 citations

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Novartis

^{1}TL;DR: A general Amber force field for organic molecules is described, designed to be compatible with existing Amber force fields for proteins and nucleic acids, and has parameters for most organic and pharmaceutical molecules that are composed of H, C, N, O, S, P, and halogens.

Abstract: We describe here a general Amber force field (GAFF) for organic molecules. GAFF is designed to be compatible with existing Amber force fields for proteins and nucleic acids, and has parameters for most organic and pharmaceutical molecules that are composed of H, C, N, O, S, P, and halogens. It uses a simple functional form and a limited number of atom types, but incorporates both empirical and heuristic models to estimate force constants and partial atomic charges. The performance of GAFF in test cases is encouraging. In test I, 74 crystallographic structures were compared to GAFF minimized structures, with a root-mean-square displacement of 0.26 A, which is comparable to that of the Tripos 5.2 force field (0.25 A) and better than those of MMFF 94 and CHARMm (0.47 and 0.44 A, respectively). In test II, gas phase minimizations were performed on 22 nucleic acid base pairs, and the minimized structures and intermolecular energies were compared to MP2/6-31G* results. The RMS of displacements and relative energies were 0.25 A and 1.2 kcal/mol, respectively. These data are comparable to results from Parm99/RESP (0.16 A and 1.18 kcal/mol, respectively), which were parameterized to these base pairs. Test III looked at the relative energies of 71 conformational pairs that were used in development of the Parm99 force field. The RMS error in relative energies (compared to experiment) is about 0.5 kcal/mol. GAFF can be applied to wide range of molecules in an automatic fashion, making it suitable for rational drug design and database searching.

13,615 citations