Author

# Cinzia Casiraghi

Other affiliations: Free University of Berlin, University of Cambridge

Bio: Cinzia Casiraghi is an academic researcher from University of Manchester. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Graphene & Raman spectroscopy. The author has an hindex of 53, co-authored 129 publication(s) receiving 29830 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Cinzia Casiraghi include Free University of Berlin & University of Cambridge.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

••

University of Cambridge

^{1}, Max Planck Society^{2}, IPG Photonics^{3}, University of Manchester^{4}TL;DR: This work shows that graphene's electronic structure is captured in its Raman spectrum that clearly evolves with the number of layers, and allows unambiguous, high-throughput, nondestructive identification of graphene layers, which is critically lacking in this emerging research area.

Abstract: Graphene is the two-dimensional building block for carbon allotropes of every other dimensionality We show that its electronic structure is captured in its Raman spectrum that clearly evolves with the number of layers The D peak second order changes in shape, width, and position for an increasing number of layers, reflecting the change in the electron bands via a double resonant Raman process The G peak slightly down-shifts This allows unambiguous, high-throughput, nondestructive identification of graphene layers, which is critically lacking in this emerging research area

12,229 citations

••

TL;DR: Transition metal dichalcogenides sandwiched between two layers of graphene produce an enhanced photoresponse, which allows development of extremely efficient flexible photovoltaic devices with photoresponsivity above 0.1 ampere per watt (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of above 30%).

Abstract: The isolation of various two-dimensional (2D) materials, and the possibility to combine them in vertical stacks, has created a new paradigm in materials science: heterostructures based on 2D crystals. Such a concept has already proven fruitful for a number of electronic applications in the area of ultrathin and flexible devices. Here, we expand the range of such structures to photoactive ones by using semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs)/graphene stacks. Van Hove singularities in the electronic density of states of TMDC guarantees enhanced light-matter interactions, leading to enhanced photon absorption and electron-hole creation (which are collected in transparent graphene electrodes). This allows development of extremely efficient flexible photovoltaic devices with photoresponsivity above 0.1 ampere per watt (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of above 30%).

1,927 citations

••

TL;DR: A detailed analysis of the Raman spectra of graphene containing different type of defects is presented, finding that the intensity ratio of the D and D' peak is maximum for sp(3)-defects, it decreases for vacancy-like defects, and it reaches a minimum for boundaries in graphite.

Abstract: Raman spectroscopy is able to probe disorder in graphene through defect-activated peaks. It is of great interest to link these features to the nature of disorder. Here we present a detailed analysis of the Raman spectra of graphene containing different type of defects. We found that the intensity ratio of the D and D′ peak is maximum (∼13) for sp3-defects, it decreases for vacancy-like defects (∼7), and it reaches a minimum for boundaries in graphite (∼3.5). This makes Raman Spectroscopy a powerful tool to fully characterize graphene.

1,366 citations

••

TL;DR: It is shown that ABO fails in graphene, a zero-bandgap semiconductor that becomes a metal if the Fermi energy is tuned applying a gate voltage, Vg, which induces a stiffening of the Raman G peak that cannot be described within ABO.

Abstract: The adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation (ABO) has been the standard ansatz to describe the interaction between electrons and nuclei since the early days of quantum mechanics. ABO assumes that the lighter electrons adjust adiabatically to the motion of the heavier nuclei, remaining at any time in their instantaneous ground state. ABO is well justified when the energy gap between ground and excited electronic states is larger than the energy scale of the nuclear motion. In metals, the gap is zero and phenomena beyond ABO (such as phonon-mediated superconductivity or phonon-induced renormalization of the electronic properties) occur. The use of ABO to describe lattice motion in metals is, therefore, questionable. In spite of this, ABO has proved effective for the accurate determination of chemical reactions, molecular dynamics and phonon frequencies in a wide range of metallic systems. Here, we show that ABO fails in graphene. Graphene, recently discovered in the free state, is a zero-bandgap semiconductor that becomes a metal if the Fermi energy is tuned applying a gate voltage, Vg. This induces a stiffening of the Raman G peak that cannot be described within ABO.

1,178 citations

••

TL;DR: The Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BO) has proven effective for the accurate determination of chemical reactions, molecular dynamics and phonon frequencies in a wide range of metallic systems as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: The Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BO) has proven effective for the accurate determination of chemical reactions, molecular dynamics and phonon frequencies in a wide range of metallic systems. Graphene, recently discovered in the free state, is a zero band-gap semiconductor, which becomes a metal if the Fermi energy is tuned applying a gate-voltage Vg. Graphene electrons near the Fermi energy have twodimensional massless dispersions, described by Dirac cones. Here we show that a change in Vg induces a stiffening of the Raman G peak (i.e. the zone-center E2g optical phonon), which cannot be described within BO. Indeed, the E2g vibrations cause rigid oscillations of the Dirac-cones in the reciprocal space. If the electrons followed adiabatically the Dirac-cone oscillations, no change in the phonon frequency would be observed. Instead, since the electron-momentum relaxation near the Fermi level is much slower than the phonon motion, the electrons do not follow the Dirac-cone displacements. This invalidates BO and results in the observed phonon stiffening. This spectacular failure of BO is quite significant since BO has been the fundamental paradigm to determine crystal vibrations from the early days of quantum mechanics.

970 citations

##### Cited by

More filters

••

[...]

TL;DR: Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments.

Abstract: Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.

32,822 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

30,199 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations, are discussed.

Abstract: This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer quantum Hall effect. The electronic properties of graphene stacks are discussed and vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge (surface) states in graphene depend on the edge termination (zigzag or armchair) and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. Different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented.

18,972 citations

28 Jul 2005

TL;DR: PfPMP1）与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用，在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.

Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1（PfPMP1）与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用，在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员，通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

••

TL;DR: Graphene is established as the strongest material ever measured, and atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.

Abstract: We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.

15,863 citations