Claire E. Naylor
Other affiliations: University of Exeter
Bio: Claire E. Naylor is an academic researcher from Birkbeck, University of London. The author has contributed to research in topics: Clostridium perfringens & Toxin. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 38 publications receiving 2010 citations. Previous affiliations of Claire E. Naylor include University of Exeter.
TL;DR: The open structure of a sodium-gated ion channel pore from a bacterial homologue is reported and it is shown, by comparison with the closed structure, that the movement of a C-terminal helix is sufficient to open the channel.
Abstract: Voltage-gated sodium channels are vital membrane proteins essential for electrical signalling; in humans, they are key targets for the development of pharmaceutical drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of an open-channel conformation of NavMs, the bacterial channel pore from the marine bacterium Magnetococcus sp. (strain MC-1). It differs from the recently published crystal structure of a closed form of a related bacterial sodium channel (NavAb) by having its internal cavity accessible to the cytoplasmic surface as a result of a bend/rotation about a central residue in the carboxy-terminal transmembrane segment. This produces an open activation gate of sufficient diameter to allow hydrated sodium ions to pass through. Comparison of the open and closed structures provides new insight into the features of the functional states present in the activation cycles of sodium channels and the mechanism of channel opening and closing.
TL;DR: The gene encoding the α-(cpa) is present in all strains of Clostridium perfringens, and the purified α-toxin has been shown to be a zinc-containing phospholipase C enzyme, which is preferentially active towards phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin.
TL;DR: It is suggested that hephaestin, by way of its ferroxidase activity, facilitates iron export from intestinal enterocytes, most likely in cooperation with the basolateral iron transporter, Ireg1.
TL;DR: The identification of sphingomyelinases and phospholipases important for bacterial pathogenesis and the development of inhibitors for these enzymes could generate candidate vaccines and therapeutic agents, which will diminish the impacts of the associated human and animal diseases.
Abstract: Bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases are a heterogeneous group of esterases which are usually surface associated or secreted by a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These enzymes hydrolyze sphingomyelin and glycerophospholipids, respectively, generating products identical to the ones produced by eukaryotic enzymes which play crucial roles in distinct physiological processes, including membrane dynamics, cellular signaling, migration, growth, and death. Several bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases are essential for virulence of extracellular, facultative, or obligate intracellular pathogens, as these enzymes contribute to phagosomal escape or phagosomal maturation avoidance, favoring tissue colonization, infection establishment and progression, or immune response evasion. This work presents a classification proposal for bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases that considers not only their enzymatic activities but also their structural aspects. An overview of the main physiopathological activities is provided for each enzyme type, as are examples in which inactivation of a sphingomyelinase- or a phospholipase-encoding gene impairs the virulence of a pathogen. The identification of sphingomyelinases and phospholipases important for bacterial pathogenesis and the development of inhibitors for these enzymes could generate candidate vaccines and therapeutic agents, which will diminish the impacts of the associated human and animal diseases.
TL;DR: Functional electrophysiological studies show that the prokaryotic sodium channel from Magnetococcus marinus (NavMs) binds and is inhibited by eukaryotic Sodium channel blockers in a manner similar to the human Nav1.1 channel, despite millions of years of divergent evolution between the two types of channels.
Abstract: Voltage-gated sodium channels are important targets for the development of pharmaceutical drugs, because mutations in different human sodium channel isoforms have causal relationships with a range of neurological and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, functional electrophysiological studies show that the prokaryotic sodium channel from Magnetococcus marinus (NavMs) binds and is inhibited by eukaryotic sodium channel blockers in a manner similar to the human Nav1.1 channel, despite millions of years of divergent evolution between the two types of channels. Crystal complexes of the NavMs pore with several brominated blocker compounds depict a common antagonist binding site in the cavity, adjacent to lipid-facing fenestrations proposed to be the portals for drug entry. In silico docking studies indicate the full extent of the blocker binding site, and electrophysiology studies of NavMs channels with mutations at adjacent residues validate the location. These results suggest that the NavMs channel can be a valuable tool for screening and rational design of human drugs.
TL;DR: The brain is a singular organ of unique biological complexity that serves as the command center for cognitive and motor function and has requirements for the highest concentrations of metal ions in the body and the highest per-weight consumption of body oxygen.
Abstract: The brain is a singular organ of unique biological complexity that serves as the command center for cognitive and motor function. As such, this specialized system also possesses a unique chemical composition and reactivity at the molecular level. In this regard, two vital distinguishing features of the brain are its requirements for the highest concentrations of metal ions in the body and the highest per-weight consumption of body oxygen. In humans, the brain accounts for only 2% of total body mass but consumes 20% of the oxygen that is taken in through respiration. As a consequence of high oxygen demand and cell complexity, distinctly high metal levels pervade all regions of the brain and central nervous system. Structural roles for metal ions in the brain and the body include the stabilization of biomolecules in static (e.g., Mg2+ for nucleic acid folds, Zn2+ in zinc-finger transcription factors) or dynamic (e.g., Na+ and K+ in ion channels, Ca2+ in neuronal cell signaling) modes, and catalytic roles for brain metal ions are also numerous and often of special demand.
TL;DR: The most effective management of G6PD deficiency is to prevent haemolysis by avoiding oxidative stress, and Screening programmes for the disorder are undertaken, depending on the prevalence of G 6PD deficiency in a particular community.
TL;DR: This review summarizes the current knowledge of this large protein family and discusses recent advances in the understanding of their structure and physiological functions.
Abstract: Claudins are tight junction membrane proteins that are expressed in epithelia and endothelia and form paracellular barriers and pores that determine tight junction permeability. This review summarizes our current knowledge of this large protein family and discusses recent advances in our understanding of their structure and physiological functions.
TL;DR: A full appreciation of folate's history as a public health issue, its biology, and an overview of available biomarkers and their interpretation across a range of clinical and population-based uses are provided.
Abstract: The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-based advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. Specifically, the BOND program provides state-of-the-art information and service with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutrients in body tissues at the individual and population level. Phase I of the BOND project includes the evaluation of biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12. This review represents the second in the series of reviews and covers all relevant aspects of folate biology and biomarkers. The article is organized to provide the reader with a full appreciation of folate's history as a public health issue, its biology, and an overview of available biomarkers (serum folate, RBC folate, and plasma homocysteine concentrations) and their interpretation across a range of clinical and population-based uses. The article also includes a list of priority research needs for advancing the area of folate biomarkers related to nutritional health status and development.
TL;DR: These impressive numbers illustrate why the making and breaking of RBCs is at the heart of iron physiology, providing an ideal context to discuss recent progress in understanding the systemic and cellular mechanisms that underlie the regulation of iron homeostasis and its disorders.