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Clement U. Nyenke

Bio: Clement U. Nyenke is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Microbiology. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 3 publications receiving 20 citations.
Topics: Medicine, Microbiology, Outbreak, Antigen, Virology

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Fuel attendants are more at risk than auto mechanics and could be at risk of developing anaemia over time and the effect of this exposure in fuel attendants and auto mechanics is determined using haematological parameters.
Abstract: Gasoline is largely a mixture of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon consists of mixture of n-paraffins, naphthalene, olefins and aromatics. Aromatics is mostly a mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene. Fuel attendants and auto mechanics are exposed to gasoline either by direct contact or inhalation. The effect of this exposure in fuel attendants and auto mechanics is determined using haematological parameters. 35 fuel attendants and 35 auto mechanics were used as test group and compared with 30 apparently healthy individuals of same age range. Some haematological parameters were determined using standard manual methods. RBC, Hb, MCH and MCHC were reduced (p < 0.05) in fuel attendants and auto mechanics when compared with control. Fuel attendants exposed to gasoline fumes beyond 2 years have lower (p < 0.05) PCV, Hb, MCH and MCHC than those exposed for 2 years or less while auto mechanics of over two years had their RBC, Hb, MCH and MCHC significantly lower (p < 0.05) than auto mechanics of two years and below. Auto mechanics and fuel attendants are exposed to gasoline vapour leading to decreased haematological indices. Fuel attendants are more at risk than auto mechanics and could be at risk of developing anaemia over time.

19 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Telfairia occidentalis extract was administered to 12 albino rats for 7 days and 4mls of blood samples were collected from the rats through ocular puncture into EDTA blood containers, which were analyzed for Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and White Blood cell count (WBC) using standard manual methods.
Abstract: Plant-derived substances are becoming increasingly known for their antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) extract protects against oxidative stress using animal model. 12 albino rats were procured, grouped into four groups and allowed to acclimatize for one week. Diluted acetone was used to induce oxidative stress. The extract was prepared and administered orally. Groups 1 and 2 received 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg of the extract respectively while group 3 received only acetone and group 4 received sterile normal saline and served as control. After the administration of the extract for 7 days, 4mls of blood samples were collected from the rats through ocular puncture into EDTA blood containers. The samples were analysed for Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and White Blood cell count (WBC) using standard manual methods. From the results, there was significant (p<0.05) increase in haemoglobin concentration in the groups that received 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg of the extract when compared with control and acetone only groups. Though there was increase in PCV of the groups that received the extract, but it was not significant. From the findings of this study, the extract of Telfairia occidentalis may possibly improve haematological parameters and confer protection in oxidative stress conditions.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the current issues of dengue fever with focus on Nigeria can be found in this paper , where the authors discuss the importance of early diagnosis, prevention, and supportive care for managing the disease and reducing its impact on public health.
Abstract: Dengue fever (break-bone fever) is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It is caused by the Dengue virus, which is a single positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Dengue fever is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas and is a significant public health concern in many countries, including`g Nigeria. The disease is characterized by symptoms such as high fever, headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, swollen glands, and rash. In severe cases, dengue fever can lead to complications such as bleeding, organ impairment, and dengue shock syndrome. Diagnosing dengue fever can be challenging, especially in areas where it is endemic. In endemic locations, diagnosis is often made clinically based on the patient's reported symptoms and a physical examination. Tourniquet testing, which involves applying a blood pressure cuff and counting any petechial hemorrhages, can help in the diagnosis. Laboratory methods, including full blood count, cell culture, nucleic acid identification (PCR), and serology, can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Preventing dengue fever involves controlling the mosquito vector and protecting oneself from mosquito bites. Measures such as eliminating mosquito breeding sites, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and using bed nets can help prevent mosquito bites. Vaccination against dengue is also available, with the Dengvaxia vaccine being used in some countries. There is no specific antiviral treatment for dengue fever. Management focuses on supportive care, maintaining a healthy fluid balance, and relieving symptoms such as fever and pain. Severe cases may require hospitalization and intensive medical care. In Nigeria, dengue fever is often misdiagnosed or overlooked due to similarities with other febrile illnesses like malaria. This can lead to underreporting and inadequate management of dengue cases. Increasing awareness among healthcare professionals and the general population is crucial for early detection and appropriate management of dengue fever in Nigeria. In conclusion dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes, primarily Aedes species. It is a significant global health concern, including in Nigeria. Early diagnosis, prevention measures, and supportive care are essential in managing dengue fever and reducing its impact on public health. This review is aimed at discussing the current issues of Dengue fever with focus on Nigeria.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The monkeypox virus has been identified as a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus, of the family, Poxviridae with accompanying symptoms such as fever, severe headache, chills, swelling of the lymph nodes, back and muscle aches, and exhaustions and eventually the appearance of rashes which develops through various stages before eventually falling off as the patients recovers and wounds heals.
Abstract: Monkeypox (MPXV) is a viral infectious disease, capable of transmitting from animals to humans. It is a zoonotic virus responsible for causing the disease, and belongs to the same family (orthopoxvirus) as the smallpox virus. The first case of human monkeypox infection was recorded in 1970 in a town called Basankusu, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. There have also been reports of the disease outbreak across West Africa. The first recorded monkeypox case outside Africa was in 2003 in the United States of America, which later developed to 70 cases without any mortality recorded. In Nigeria, the spread of monkeypox has been reported across the South-East and South-South regions of the country and disease has since been recorded in states such as Akwa Ibom, Abia, Bayelsa, Benue, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Lagos, Nasarawa, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The monkeypox virus has been identified as a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus, of the family, Poxviridae with accompanying symptoms such as fever, severe headache, chills, swelling of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), back and muscle aches (myalgia), and exhaustions (asthenia) and eventually the appearance of rashes which develops through various stages before eventually falling off as the patients recovers and wounds heals. Animal-human Zoonotic transmission occurs through direct contact with the biological materials from infected host animal such as blood, mucosal lesions, bodily fluids, or cutaneous, through broken skin, mucous membranes, or respiratory airways of the nose, eyes, or the mouth, while human-to-human infection occurs through direct contact with the infectious rash, scabs, or body fluids, of an infected person. It also spreads through secretion from the respiratory tract through prolonged face to face or intimate contact with an infected person, contact with contaminated surfaces from infected host, or to a fetus via the placenta, or close contact with infected mother (congenital monkeypox). It can be diagnosed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) laboratory testing in combination with gene sequencing, and the infected patient treated using tecovirimat specific for smallpox virus, while studies are ongoing to develop its particular medication. This study is aimed at discussing the current issues on monkeypox virus with respect to the Nigerian society.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study's main goal is to show some of the new and effective ways to diagnose malaria that go beyond the gold standard, light microscopy, which has some problems.
Abstract: Effective diagnostic methods must continue to be developed due to the effects of malaria on world health. Malaria is an infectious disease spread by mosquitoes that affects both people and other animals. It is the product of Plasmodium parasites, which are transmitted through bites from infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Other sporozoan species responsible for malaria infections include the sporozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malaria, and Plasmodium knowlesi. Routine diagnosis of malaria is impeded in areas where the disease is endemic by technical and infrastructure issues with laboratories. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential since good disease management is one of the primary actions of the Global Malaria Control Strategy. Accurate malaria detection is also crucial in order to inform malaria control efforts through epidemiologic screening and surveillance, for research reasons to evaluate the effectiveness of antimalarial medications and vaccines, and for blood bank screening. This study's main goal is to show some of the new and effective ways to diagnose malaria that go beyond the gold standard, light microscopy, which has some problems.

Cited by
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01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: By varying the size of the afferent and/or arterioles, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be increased or decreased.
Abstract: 3. Compare the relative diameters of the afferent and efferent arterioles and explain the significance in this size differential. The afferent arteriole is wider than the efferent arteriole which means that blood enters the glomerulus through a wider opening than the blood exiting the glomerulus, thus creating an increased “back pressure” (=hydrostatic filtration pressure). They hydrostatic pressure is higher in the glomerulus than in other capillaries. By varying the size of the afferent and/or arterioles, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be increased or decreased.

230 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects.
Abstract: The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity. These mechanisms include covalent binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), leading to oxidative damage, tumor-suppression gene activity, and activation of pro-oncogenes. Furthermore, it results in induction of autoimmunity and local inflammatory responses, disruption of multiple neurotransmitters and immune cell function, derangement of various enzyme activities (e.g., sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphate (Na+/K+/ATPase) activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP450), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), antioxidant enzyme activities, etc.), conjugation of bile, and non-specific cell membrane interaction, leading to damage of the membrane lipid bilayer and proteins. Available data suggests that exposure to gasoline or gasoline constituents have the potential to cause different types of illnesses. The data highlights the need to maintain safety measures via suitable research, medical surveillance, regulatory control, life style modification, early detection, and intervention to minimize exposure and manage suspected cases. They also present novel opportunities to design and develop effective therapeutic strategies against gasoline-induced detrimental effects. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1):1-26.

53 citations

Journal Article

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Serum lead and white blood cell count were significantly higher in auto mechanics compared with PSAs and controls, while haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell haemobic concentration, means cell haenoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean cell volume (MCV),mean cell haeemoglobin (M CH) and platelet count wereificantly higher in controls, compared to PS as and auto mechanics.
Abstract: Background: Lead adversely affects a number of organ systems in the body, especially in at risk occupational groups. Objective: To evaluate the influence of serum lead levels on heamatological parameters among petrol station attendants (PSAs) and auto mobile mechanics in Nnewi, South-east Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects (including 25 PSAs, 25 auto mobile mechanics and 50 normal controls) were prospectively recruited. Five mililiter of blood was collected for full blood count (FBC) and serum lead estimation, FBC was done using haematology auto-analyzer (SYSMEX PE 6800), while lead estimation was done with atomic absorption spectrophotometer ((AAS model: 240FSAA). Results were expressed as means ±SD, while associations between variable were explored using student t-test and analysis of variance. Ethical clearance was sought and obtained from our institutional review board and all participants gave informed consent. Results: Serum lead and white blood cell count (WBC) were significantly higher in auto mechanics compared with PSAs and controls (P values < 0.001), while haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and platelet count were significantly higher in controls, compared to PSAs and auto mechanics (P values

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was concluded that the exposure of rats to different doses of gasohol impair spermatogenesis and sperm quality, with a recognizable classification pattern of exposure groups at ML.
Abstract: Contamination caused by leakage at gas stations leads to possible exposure of the general population when in contact with contaminated water and soil. The present study aimed to evaluate the reproductive effects of exposure of adult male rats to gasohol and evaluate the performance of machine learning (ML) algorithms for pattern recognition and classification of the exposure groups. Rats were orally exposed to 0 (control), 16 (EA), 160 (EB), or 800 mg kg−1 bw day−1 of gasohol (EC), for 30 consecutive days. Sperm quality of the groups exposed to two higher doses was reduced in comparison to the control group. The sperm parameters decreased were: daily sperm production, sperm number in the caput/corpus epididymis, progressive motility, mitochondrial activity, and acrosomal membrane integrity. Sperm transit time in the epididymis cauda and sperm isolated head were increased in EB and EC. Sertoli cells number was decreased in these groups, but their support capacity was maintained. ML methods were used to identify patterns between samples of control and exposure groups. The results obtained by ML methods were very promising, obtaining about 90% of accuracy. It was concluded that the exposure of rats to different doses of gasohol impair spermatogenesis and sperm quality, with a recognizable classification pattern of exposure groups at ML.

9 citations