Other affiliations: Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust
Bio: Comfort Momoh is an academic researcher from St Thomas' Hospital. The author has contributed to research in topics: Reproductive health & Refugee. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 7 publications receiving 655 citations. Previous affiliations of Comfort Momoh include Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust.
TL;DR: This review is to provide an up to date account of recent papers and attitude on female genital mutilation in the past year aimed at all professionals caring and supporting women/girls with female genital Mutilation, and to identify gaps.
Abstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an up to date account of recent papers and attitude on female genital mutilation in the past year. It is aimed at all professionals caring and supporting women/girls with female genital mutilation and to identify gaps. Worldwide there are approximately 13 million refugees and asylum seekers and human rights violations are seen as contributing factors to people fleeing their homeland. In the United States those seeking asylum or refugee status are asked about their life experiences. African women are asked about ritual genital surgery as it may be an indicator of their gynaecological obstetric and sexual health. Health and social care professionals in host countries in Europe Australia Canada the USA and the UK for example are increasingly encountering this vulnerable client group in their practice and are finding that they are ill-prepared to deal with presenting complex health needs and challenges. (excerpt)
TL;DR: Be aware of this practice, its cultural sensitivities, and the implications for health.
Abstract: This chapter provides an overview of the practice female genital mutilation (FGM) and highlights the role medical undergraduates particularly in fields of general practice, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, midwifery and nursing, can play in the prevention of FGM and the protection of survivors and those at risk. Reference is made to legislative, international and national policy documents that exist to help undergraduates identify the different classifications of FGM and highlight the global prevalence and motivations behind the practice. In order to bring an end to FGM healthcare professionals must be alerted to the importance of reporting and referring any health concerns to the necessary safeguarding agencies or designated professionals and as such a discussion on the multidisciplinary approach to prevention is also made. The chapter is written particularly from the point of view of the England and Wales jurisdiction, but the broad principles apply worldwide.
TL;DR: Paediatricians should resist its medicalisation and refuse to accept the role of science in the care of children.
Abstract: Paediatricians should resist its medicalisation Female genital mutilation is defined by the World Health Organization as any procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.1 Worldwide, 100-140 million girls and women are estimated to live with the consequences of such practices. Although a graded classification of types exists,2 female genital mutilation is recognised internationally as a violation of human rights with no health benefits. Immediate risks include haemorrhage, infection, and death. Long term consequences include menstrual problems, infertility, psychosexual and psychological difficulties, and adverse obstetric outcomes including caesarean section, perineal trauma, haemorrhage, and perinatal death.3 So why did the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) amend an earlier policy to suggest that United States law could be changed to allow doctors to “nick” female genitalia, as a cultural compromise?4 Women’s rights organisations, the World Health Organisation, and the UK Royal Colleges of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatrics and Child Health all expressed dismay.5 6 The AAP released a statement on 27 May to say that they have withdrawn the policy,7 but …
TL;DR: Amasanti and colleagues consider female genital mutilation in the UK, how overly intrusive efforts to help might make the problem worse, and how to move forwards.
Abstract: Amasanti and colleagues consider female genital mutilation in the UK, how overly intrusive efforts to help might make the problem worse, and how best to move forwards.
TL;DR: Urology nurses need to be aware of what their medical roles and legal responsibilities are so that they are able to sensitively and holistically care for girls and women living with or at risk of FGM/C.
Abstract: Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision (FGM/C) is a deep-rooted practice in some countries that needs to be addressed if the health needs of women and girls are to be met. FGM/C has no medical or health benefits. This article will discuss the different types of FGM/C, the law and legal implications and urological complications. Urology nurses need to be aware of what their medical roles and legal responsibilities are so that they are able to sensitively and holistically care for girls and women living with or at risk of FGM/C.
29 Nov 2010
TL;DR: The Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) as discussed by the authors was created with the specific purpose of being comparable across time, and aggregates five years of data and seeks to reveal country progress in a transparent manner.
Abstract: The Global Gender Gap Index was created with the specific purpose of being comparable across time. The 2010 Report aggregates five years of data and seeks to reveal country progress in a transparent manner. By doing this we hope this Report will serve as a call to action to the international community to pool its knowledge and resources and to leverage the current unique window of opportunity so that faster progress can be achieved. Every moment that we wait entails colossal losses to the global society and economy. (Excerpt)
TL;DR: Keystones in the successful implementation of infertility care in low-resource settings include simplification of diagnostic and ART procedures, minimizing the complication rate of interventions, providing training-courses for health-care workers and incorporating infertility treatment into sexual and reproductive health- Care programmes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Worldwide more than 70 million couples suffer from infertility, the majority being residents of developing countries. Negative consequences of childlessness are experienced to a greater degree in developing countries when compared with Western societies. Bilateral tubal occlusion due to sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy-related infections is the most common cause of infertility in developing countries, a condition that is potentially treatable with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). New reproductive technologies are either unavailable or very costly in developing countries. This review provides a comprehensive survey of all important papers on the issue of infertility in developing countries. METHODS Medline, PubMed, Excerpta Medica and EMBASE searches identified relevant papers published between 1978 and 2007 and the keywords used were the combinations of ‘affordable, assisted reproduction, ART, developing countries, health services, infertility, IVF, simplified methods, traditional health care'. RESULTS The exact prevalence of infertility in developing countries is unknown due to a lack of registration and well-performed studies. On the other hand, the implementation of appropriate infertility treatment is currently not a main goal for most international non-profit organizations. Keystones in the successful implementation of infertility care in low-resource settings include simplification of diagnostic and ART procedures, minimizing the complication rate of interventions, providing training-courses for health-care workers and incorporating infertility treatment into sexual and reproductive health-care programmes. CONCLUSIONS Although recognizing the importance of education and prevention, we believe that for the reasons of social justice, infertility treatment in developing countries requires greater attention at National and International levels.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the process through which women's organizations succeeded in placing front and center on the UN agenda two issues that had been perceived as exclusively private: violence against women and reproductive rights and health.
Abstract: How, why, and under what conditions are NGOs able to influence state's interests? To answer these questions, I examine the process through which women's organizations succeeded in placing front and center on the UN agenda two issues that had been perceived as exclusively private: violence against women and reproductive rights and health. I develop a theoretical framework drawing on both the agenda-setting and social movement literature. I suggest that NGOs attempt to influence states' interests by framing problems, solutions, and justifications for political action. Whether they are successful in mobilizing support is contingent on the dynamic interaction of primarily two factors: (1) the political opportunity structure in which NGOs are embedded, comprising access to institutions, the presence of influential allies, and changes in political alignments and conflicts; and (2) the mobilizing structures that NGOs have at their disposal, including organizational entrepreneurs, a heterogeneous international constituency, and experts. I find that in the beginning of the agenda-setting process, the influence of NGOs is rather limited, their frames are highly contested, and structural obstacles outweigh organizational resources. However, over time the influence of NGOs increases. As they establish their own mobilizing structures, they become capable of altering the political opportunity structure in their favor, and their frames gain in acceptance and legitimacy.
TL;DR: It is argued that violence against women is also a prominent public mental health problem, and that mental health professionals should be identifying, preventing, and responding to violence againstWomen more effectively.
Abstract: Summary Violence against women is widely recognised as a violation of human rights and a public health problem. In this Series paper, we argue that violence against women is also a prominent public mental health problem, and that mental health professionals should be identifying, preventing, and responding to violence against women more effectively. The most common forms of violence against women are domestic abuse and sexual violence, and victimisation is associated with an increased risk of mental disorder. Despite clinical guidance on the role of mental health professionals in identifying violence against women and responding appropriately, poor identification persists and can lead to non-engagement with services and poor response to treatment. We highlight that little research has been done on how to improve identification and treatment of victims and perpetrators in contact with mental health services, but that mental health services could play a major role in primary and secondary prevention of violence against women.
TL;DR: A review of the evidence suggests that the specter of complete "crowding out," whereby introduction or expansion of public transfers merely supplants private transfers, appears quite remote, though not impossible.
Abstract: What do we know about the role of extended families and kinship networks for redistributing resources? What gaps in our knowledge most need to be filled? How can we best organize current work and identify priorities for future research? These questions are important for several reasons: households in developing countries depend on friends and relatives for their livelihood and sometimes their survival; help exchanged within extended families and kin networks affects the distribution of economic well-being, and this private assistance and exchange can interact with public income redistribution. Yet despite rapid recent progress there remain significant deficiencies in our understanding of the economics of extended families. Researchers confront a large and sometimes bewildering array of findings. We review and assess this literature by starting with an emphasis on standard economic concerns, most notably the possible interaction between government-provided social insurance and private kinship networks. Our review of the evidence suggests that the specter of complete "crowding out," whereby introduction or expansion of public transfers merely supplants private transfers, appears quite remote, though not impossible. However, numerous studies do suggest partial - but nonetheless substantial - crowding out, on the order of a 20-to-30-cent reduction in private transfers per dollar increase in public transfers. But the range of estimated effects is exceedingly wide, with many studies suggesting little private transfer response at all. Reconciling and explaining these disparate findings is a priority for future research. Theorizing about the economics of families should move beyond its concentration on income effects. The empirical literature indeed indicates that non-economic variables, such as age and gender, can have a powerful association with private transfers. We suggest that economists tap into the extensive non-economic literature that takes an evolutionary approach to the family. We show that this literature provides valuable guidance for modeling the effects of age, sex and relatedness in the interactions among extended family members. The evolutionary literature has much to offer economists interested in family behavior by proposing novel interpretations of existing findings and pointing out new and fruitful directions for future research. We encourage economists to pay more attention to this approach when studying kinship networks.