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Cristina Álvarez López

Bio: Cristina Álvarez López is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Nothing & Outbreak. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 6 publications receiving 44 citations.

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Journal Article
TL;DR: A case-control epidemiological investigation was conducted using representative non-probability sampling as discussed by the authors, which showed a common-source foodborne disease outbreak with a case control ratio of 1:1.8.
Abstract: Foodborne disease outbreak in El Huecu community, province of Neuquen. In the summer of 2006, an epidemic outbreak of acute gastrointestinal illness related to food consumption occurred in a small town in the province of Neuquen, Argentina. During a popular feast, approximately 800 local residents attended lunch held in the facilities of the Municipal Gymnasium. About three hours later, nearly 150 attendees sought medical assistance at the local hospital due to acute gastroenteritis. A case-control epidemiological investigation was conducted using representative non-probability sampling. The epidemiological investigation showed a common-source foodborne disease outbreak with a case-control ratio of 1:1.8. The main symptoms were abdominal cramps (88%), vomiting (73.5%) and diarrhea (60%). The cake was identified as the source of infection (OR 9.79; IC 95%, 2.66-36.00; p = 0.0001), and unsatisfactory hygienic conditions in food production, conservation and handling steps were identified. Coagulase positive, enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus, subspecies aureus was detected in a piece of cake, with a count of 2.4x10 6 CFU/g, and in samples from the hands and nostrils of three people involved in food preparation and service. The strains isolated from both the cake and one of the food handlers carried the sea gene, and presented the same SmaI-PFGE pattern. The foodborne disease outbreak was considered to be due to contamination in the preparation process of the cake consumed at the feast, which was related to inadequate hygienic conditions, lack of refrigeration and cold chain disruption.

13 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings underscore the need to control S. aureus bovine mastitis and to limit bacterial multiplication in bulk tank milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent bovine mastitis pathogen in Argentina. The ability of this organism to produce enterotoxins is linked to staphylococcal food poisoning. Staphylococcal enterotoxins are low molecular weight proteins, highly resistant to heat and proteolytic enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to determine the ability to produce enterotoxins and types of enterotoxins A through E produced among 94 S. aureus isolated from bulk tank milk in Argentina by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Eleven isolates (11.7 %) produced enterotoxins. Seven of them (7.4 %) produced enterotoxin C, two (2.1 %) enterotoxin D, one (1.1 %) enterotoxin B and one (1.1 %) enterotoxins C-D-E. None of the isolates produced enterotoxins A or E alone. Since presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins constitute a potential risk to public health, these findings underscore the need to control S. aureus bovine mastitis and to limit bacterial multiplication in bulk tank milk.

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review summarizes the scientific information about outbreaks related to foodborne pathogens in dairy products and highlights the increasing application of molecular approaches to detect and identify the bacteria responsible for these outbreaks.
Abstract: Because of their unique composition and properties, milk and dairy products represent excellent growth media for many pathogenic microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella spp. , Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are the most frequent potential pathogens associated with milk or dairy products in industrialized countries and are therefore the main microbiological hazards linked to raw milk and raw cheese. This review summarizes the scientific information about outbreaks related to foodborne pathogens in dairy products and highlights the increasing application of molecular approaches to detect and identify the bacteria responsible for these outbreaks. Molecular techniques have facilitated the rapid detection and identification of foodborne pathogens, which has been crucial for current surveillance and outbreak control.

23 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data found here suggest a high risk of staphylococcal intoxication with the consumption of raw milk or dairy products made from raw milk.
Abstract: In this study, the enterotoxigenic potential of Staphylococcus strains (n = 574) isolated from raw milk samples (n = 140) was determined for their capacity to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins. In addition, the relationship between the presence of enterotoxins, coagulase, and thermonuclease (Tnase) was assessed. The results showed that 19% of Staphylococcus was enterotoxigenic, being able to produce at least one of the staphylococcal enterotoxins (A, B, C, and D). Most of the strains were able to produce enterotoxin D (68.8%), whereas 12.8% of the Staphylococcus strains were able to produce staphylococcal enterotoxin A. Besides, the production of more than one type of enterotoxins by the same strain was observed. Tnase was considered the best marker for enterotoxigenic potential of isolates, although some of them were negative for coagulase and Tnase but positive for enterotoxin production. Therefore, either the use of Tnase to assess Staphylococcus enterotoxigenic potential or the use of simpl...

18 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The main aims of this study were to optimize two PCR techniques for detection of S. aureus sea, seb, sec, sed and see and to characterize Staphylococcus spp.
Abstract: Multiplex PCR for the detection of sea, seb, sec, sed and see genes of Staphylococcus aureus. Characterization of isolates from food. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus in food represents a potential risk to public health, being its enterotoxins the major virulence factor. Enterotoxin detection can be determined by ELISA, but only for the pool of enterotoxins SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and SEE. The main aims of this study were to optimize two PCR techniques for detection of S. aureus sea, seb, sec, sed and see, and to characterize Staphylococcus spp. isolates associated with food intoxication. Two PCR techniques were optimized and 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates from Ciudad Aut6noma de Buenos Aires, and Buenos Aires, Cordoba, and Neuquen provinces were characterized. The characterization was performed by biochemical tests, ELISA and PCR. Sixty-eight isolates (59.1%) were positive by ELISA, while 61 (53%) were positive by PCR. Out of the positive PCR isolates, 34 (55.7%) carried the sea gene, 9 (14.8%) the seb gene, 5 (8.1%) the see gene, 4 (6.5%) the sec gene, 6 (9.9%) were positive for sea and seb genes, 2 (3.3%) for sea and sec genes, and 1 (1.7%) for sea and sedgenes. This is the first study of genotypic characterization of S. aureus isolates associated with food intoxication from different provinces of Argentina.

17 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The first brote epidemico denunciado in Paraguay was reported in 2007 as mentioned in this paper, in which s. aureus C (sec) and D (sed) were identified as the source of the contamination.
Abstract: Durante marzo de 2007 ocurrio un brote epidemico asociado al consumo de leche ultrapasteurizada que afecto a las ciudades de San Lorenzo, Ciudad del Este y Asuncion, de la Republica del Paraguay. Las personas afectadas fueron 400, de las cuales 60 requirieron hospitalizacion. Se aislo S. aureus subespecie aureus de 5 pacientes, 3 operarios y 3 muestras de leche. Todas las cepas fueron productoras de enterotoxinas. Las aislamientos de 3 pacientes, de un operario y de las muestras de leche portaron los genes que codifican las enterotoxinas C (sec) y D (sed), y presentaron un patron unico de macrorrestriccion (SmaI-PFGE). Se identifico a la leche como fuente de intoxicacion y a un operario de la linea de produccion como origen de la contaminacion. Este es el primer brote de ETA denunciado en Paraguay en el cual se pudo aislar, caracterizar y subtipificar el agente etiologico en la planta de elaboracion, en el alimento y en las personas afectadas.

16 citations