scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Ctirad Uher

Bio: Ctirad Uher is an academic researcher from University of Michigan. The author has contributed to research in topics: Thermoelectric effect & Thermoelectric materials. The author has an hindex of 94, co-authored 593 publications receiving 39899 citations. Previous affiliations of Ctirad Uher include University of New South Wales & General Motors.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
17 Apr 2014-Nature
TL;DR: An unprecedented ZT of 2.6 ± 0.3 at 923 K is reported in SnSe single crystals measured along the b axis of the room-temperature orthorhombic unit cell, which highlights alternative strategies to nanostructuring for achieving high thermoelectric performance.
Abstract: The thermoelectric effect enables direct and reversible conversion between thermal and electrical energy, and provides a viable route for power generation from waste heat The efficiency of thermoelectric materials is dictated by the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT (where Z is the figure of merit and T is absolute temperature), which governs the Carnot efficiency for heat conversion Enhancements above the generally high threshold value of 25 have important implications for commercial deployment, especially for compounds free of Pb and Te Here we report an unprecedented ZT of 26 ± 03 at 923 K, realized in SnSe single crystals measured along the b axis of the room-temperature orthorhombic unit cell This material also shows a high ZT of 23 ± 03 along the c axis but a significantly reduced ZT of 08 ± 02 along the a axis We attribute the remarkably high ZT along the b axis to the intrinsically ultralow lattice thermal conductivity in SnSe The layered structure of SnSe derives from a distorted rock-salt structure, and features anomalously high Gruneisen parameters, which reflect the anharmonic and anisotropic bonding We attribute the exceptionally low lattice thermal conductivity (023 ± 003 W m(-1) K(-1) at 973 K) in SnSe to the anharmonicity These findings highlight alternative strategies to nanostructuring for achieving high thermoelectric performance

3,823 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Feb 2004-Science
TL;DR: In the temperature range 600 to 900 kelvin, the AgPbmSbTe2+m material is expected to outperform all reported bulk thermoelectrics, thereby earmarking it as a material system for potential use in efficient thermoeLECTric power generation from heat sources.
Abstract: The conversion of heat to electricity by thermoelectric devices may play a key role in the future for energy production and utilization. However, in order to meet that role, more efficient thermoelectric materials are needed that are suitable for high-temperature applications. We show that the material system AgPb m SbTe 2+ m may be suitable for this purpose. With m = 10 and 18 and doped appropriately, n -type semiconductors can be produced that exhibit a high thermoelectric figure of merit material ZT max of ∼2.2 at 800 kelvin. In the temperature range 600 to 900 kelvin, the AgPb m SbTe 2+ m material is expected to outperform all reported bulk thermoelectrics, thereby earmarking it as a material system for potential use in efficient thermoelectric power generation from heat sources.

2,716 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate a new strategy and direction for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials by exploring systems where there exists a crystalline sublattice for electronic conduction surrounded by liquid-like ions.
Abstract: Advanced thermoelectric technology offers a potential for converting waste industrial heat into useful electricity, and an emission-free method for solid state cooling. Worldwide efforts to find materials with thermoelectric figure of merit, zT values significantly above unity, are frequently focused on crystalline semiconductors with low thermal conductivity. Here we report on Cu_(2−x)Se, which reaches a zT of 1.5 at 1,000 K, among the highest values for any bulk materials. Whereas the Se atoms in Cu_(2−x)Se form a rigid face-centred cubic lattice, providing a crystalline pathway for semiconducting electrons (or more precisely holes), the copper ions are highly disordered around the Se sublattice and are superionic with liquid-like mobility. This extraordinary ‘liquid-like’ behaviour of copper ions around a crystalline sublattice of Se in Cu_(2−x)Se results in an intrinsically very low lattice thermal conductivity which enables high zT in this otherwise simple semiconductor. This unusual combination of properties leads to an ideal thermoelectric material. The results indicate a new strategy and direction for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials by exploring systems where there exists a crystalline sublattice for electronic conduction surrounded by liquid-like ions.

1,609 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Jan 2016-Science
TL;DR: A record high ZTdev ∼1.34, with ZT ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 at 300 to 773 kelvin, realized in hole-doped tin selenide (SnSe) crystals, arises from the ultrahigh power factor, which comes from a high electrical conductivity and a strongly enhanced Seebeck coefficient enabled by the contribution of multiple electronic valence bands present in SnSe.
Abstract: Thermoelectric technology, harvesting electric power directly from heat, is a promising environmentally friendly means of energy savings and power generation. The thermoelectric efficiency is determined by the device dimensionless figure of merit ZT(dev), and optimizing this efficiency requires maximizing ZT values over a broad temperature range. Here, we report a record high ZT(dev) ∼1.34, with ZT ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 at 300 to 773 kelvin, realized in hole-doped tin selenide (SnSe) crystals. The exceptional performance arises from the ultrahigh power factor, which comes from a high electrical conductivity and a strongly enhanced Seebeck coefficient enabled by the contribution of multiple electronic valence bands present in SnSe. SnSe is a robust thermoelectric candidate for energy conversion applications in the low and moderate temperature range.

1,542 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The research suggests that striving to achieve band degeneracy by means of compositional variations is an effective strategy for enhancing the thermoelectric properties of these materials.
Abstract: Mg(2)Si and Mg(2)Sn are indirect band gap semiconductors with two low-lying conduction bands (the lower mass and higher mass bands) that have their respective band edges reversed in the two compounds. Consequently, for some composition x, Mg(2)Si(1-x)Sn(x) solid solutions must display a convergence in energy of the two conduction bands. Since Mg(2)Si(1-x)Sn(x) solid solutions are among the most prospective of the novel thermoelectric materials, we aim on exploring the influence of such a band convergence (valley degeneracy) on the Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric properties in a series of Mg(2)Si(1-x)Sn(x) solid solutions uniformly doped with Sb. Transport measurements carried out from 4 to 800 K reveal a progressively increasing Seebeck coefficient that peaks at x=0.7. At this concentration the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT reaches exceptionally large values of 1.3 near 700 K. Our first principles calculations confirm that at the Sn content x≈0.7 the two conduction bands coincide in energy. We explain the high Seebeck coefficient and ZT values as originating from an enhanced density-of-states effective mass brought about by the increased valley degeneracy as the two conduction bands cross over. We corroborate the increase in the density-of-states effective mass by measurements of the low temperature specific heat. The research suggests that striving to achieve band degeneracy by means of compositional variations is an effective strategy for enhancing the thermoelectric properties of these materials.

1,044 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

29,323 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1988-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These

9,929 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new era of complex thermoelectric materials is approaching because of modern synthesis and characterization techniques, particularly for nanoscale materials, and the strategies used to improve the thermopower and reduce the thermal conductivity are reviewed.
Abstract: Thermoelectric materials, which can generate electricity from waste heat or be used as solid-state Peltier coolers, could play an important role in a global sustainable energy solution. Such a development is contingent on identifying materials with higher thermoelectric efficiency than available at present, which is a challenge owing to the conflicting combination of material traits that are required. Nevertheless, because of modern synthesis and characterization techniques, particularly for nanoscale materials, a new era of complex thermoelectric materials is approaching. We review recent advances in the field, highlighting the strategies used to improve the thermopower and reduce the thermal conductivity.

8,999 citations