D. Keith Walters
Bio: D. Keith Walters is an academic researcher from University of Oklahoma. The author has contributed to research in topics: Turbulence & Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 82 publications receiving 1409 citations. Previous affiliations of D. Keith Walters include Mississippi State University & Clemson University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, an eddy-viscosity turbulence model employing three additional transport equations is presented and applied to a number of transitional flow test cases, which is based on the k- framework and represents a substantial refinement to a transition-sensitive model that has been previously documented in the open literature.
Abstract: An eddy-viscosity turbulence model employing three additional transport equations is presented and applied to a number of transitional flow test cases. The model is based on the k- framework and represents a substantial refinement to a transition-sensitive model that has been previously documented in the open literature. The third transport equation is included to predict the magnitude of low-frequency velocity fluctuations in the pretransitional boundary layer that have been identified as the precursors to transition. The closure of model terms is based on a phenomenological (i.e., physics-based) rather than a purely empirical approach and the rationale for the forms of these terms is discussed. The model has been implemented into a commercial computational fluid dynamics code and applied to a number of relevant test cases, including flat plate boundary layers with and without applied pressure gradients, as well as a variety of airfoil test cases with different geometries, Reynolds numbers, freestream turbulence conditions, and angles of attack. The test cases demonstrate the ability of the model to successfully reproduce transitional flow behavior with a reasonable degree of accuracy, particularly in comparison with commonly used models that exhibit no capability of predicting laminar-toturbulent boundary layer development. While it is impossible to resolve all of the complex features of transitional and turbulent flows with a relatively simple Reynolds-averaged modeling approach, the results shown here demonstrate that the new model can provide a useful and practical tool for engineers addressing the simulation and prediction of transitional flow behavior in fluid systems. DOI: 10.1115/1.2979230
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a new model for bypass and natural transition prediction using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD), based on modification of two-equation, linear eddy-viscosity turbulence models.
Abstract: This paper presents the development and implementation of a new model for bypass and natural transition prediction using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD), based on modification of two-equation, linear eddy-viscosity turbulence models. The new model is developed herein based on considerations of the universal character of transitional boundary layers that have recently been documented in the open literature, and implemented into a popular commercial CFD code (FLUENT) in order to assess its performance. Two transitional test cases are presented: (1) a boundary layer developing on a flat heated wall, with free-stream turbulence intensity (Tu∞) ranging from 0.2 to 6%; and (2) flow over a turbine stator vane, with chord Reynolds number 2.3 × 10 5 , and Tu∞ from 0.6 to 20%. Results are presented in terms of Stanton number, and compared to experimental data for both cases. Results show good agreement with the test cases and suggest that the new approach has potential as a predictive tool.
TL;DR: In this paper, an advanced version of a three-equation eddy-viscosity model is proposed to resolve boundary layer transition in both steady and unsteady compressor aerosimulations.
Abstract: Recent experimental work has documented the importance of wake passing on the behavior of transitional boundary layers on the suction surface of axial compressor blades. This paper documents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using a commercially available general-purpose CFD solver, performed on a representative case with unsteady transitional behavior. The study implements an advanced version of a three-equation eddy-viscosity model previously developed and documented by the authors, which is capable of resolving boundary layer transition. It is applied to the test cases of steady and unsteady boundary layer transition on a two-dimensional flat plate geometry with a freestream velocity distribution representative of the suction side of a compressor airfoil. The CFD results are analyzed and compared to a similar experimental test case from the open literature. Results with the model show a dramatic improvement over more typical Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-based modeling approaches, and highlight the importance of resolving transition in both steady and unsteady compressor aerosimulations.
TL;DR: An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to correlate experimentally determined Colburn j-factors and Fanning friction factors for flow of liquid water in straight tubes with internal helical fins as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to correlate experimentally determined Colburn j-factors and Fanning friction factors for flow of liquid water in straight tubes with internal helical fins. Experimental data came from eight enhanced tubes with helix angles between 25° and 48°, number of fin starts between 10 and 45, fin height-to-diameter ratios between 0.0199 and 0.0327, and Reynolds numbers ranging from 12,000 to 60,000. The performance of the neural networks was found to be superior compared to the corresponding power-law regressions. The ANNs were subsequently used to predict data of other researchers but the results were less accurate. The ANN training database was therefore expanded to include experimental data from two independent investigations. The ANNs trained with the combined database showed satisfactory results, and were superior to algebraic power-law correlations developed with the combined database.
TL;DR: A previously reported methodology for simulating large-scale regions of the lung airway is extended here to particle transport and deposition simulations, indicating that the new method can provide an accurate alternative for large- scale CFD simulations while potentially reducing the computational cost of these simulations by several orders of magnitude.
Abstract: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has emerged as a useful tool for the prediction of airflow and particle transport within the human lung airway. Several published studies have demonstrated the use of Eulerian finite-volume CFD simulations coupled with Lagrangian particle tracking methods to determine local and regional particle deposition rates in small subsections of the bronchopulmonary tree. However, the simulation of particle transport and deposition in large-scale models encompassing more than a few generations is less common, due in part to the sheer size and complexity of the human lung airway. Highly resolved, fully coupled flowfield solution and particle tracking in the entire lung, for example, is currently an intractable problem and will remain so for the foreseeable future. This paper adopts a previously reported methodology for simulating large-scale regions of the lung airway (Walters, D. K., and Luke, W. H., 2010, "A Method for Three-Dimensional Navier―Stokes Simulations of Large-Scale Regions of the Human Lung Airway, " ASME J. Fluids Eng., 132(5), p. 051101), which was shown to produce results similar to fully resolved geometries using approximate, reduced geometry models. The methodology is extended here to particle transport and deposition simulations. Lagrangian particle tracking simulations are performed in combination with Eulerian simulations of the airflow in an idealized representation of the human lung airway tree. Results using the reduced models are compared with those using the fully resolved models for an eight-generation region of the conducting zone. The agreement between fully resolved and reduced geometry simulations indicates that the new method can provide an accurate alternative for large-scale CFD simulations while potentially reducing the computational cost of these simulations by several orders of magnitude.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The numerical heat transfer and fluid flow is universally compatible with any devices to read and is available in the authors' digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you for reading numerical heat transfer and fluid flow. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have search numerous times for their favorite books like this numerical heat transfer and fluid flow, but end up in infectious downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they cope with some malicious virus inside their computer. numerical heat transfer and fluid flow is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly. Our books collection spans in multiple countries, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Merely said, the numerical heat transfer and fluid flow is universally compatible with any devices to read.
TL;DR: The main goal of the present paper is to publish the full model and release it to the research community so that it can continue to be further validated and possibly extended or improved.
Abstract: A new correlation-based transition model has been developed, which is built strictly on local variables. As a result, the transition model is compatible with modern computational fluid dynamics techniques such as unstructured grids and massively parallel execution. The model is based on two transport equations, one for intermittency and one for a transition onset criterion in terms of momentum-thickness Reynolds number. A number of validation papers have been published on the basic formulation of the model. However, until now the full model correlations have not been published. The main goal of the present paper is to publish the full model and release it to the research community so that it can continue to be further validated and possibly extended or improved. Included in this paper are a number of test cases that can be used to validate the implementation of the model in a given computational fluid dynamics code. The authors believe that the current formulation is a significant step forward in engineering transition modeling, as it allows the combination of transition correlations with general-purpose computational fluid dynamics codes. There is a strong potential that the model will allow the first-order effects of transition to be included in everyday industrial computational fluid dynamics simulations.
01 Apr 1992
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a monotone integrated large eddy simulation approach, which incorporates a form of turbulence modeling applicable when the large-scale flows of interest are intrinsically time dependent, thus throwing common statistical models into question.
Abstract: Fluid dynamic turbulence is one of the most challenging computational physics problems because of the extremely wide range of time and space scales involved, the strong nonlinearity of the governing equations, and the many practical and important applications. While most linear fluid instabilities are well understood, the nonlinear interactions among them makes even the relatively simple limit of homogeneous isotropic turbulence difficult to treat physically, mathematically, and computationally. Turbulence is modeled computationally by a two-stage bootstrap process. The first stage, direct numerical simulation, attempts to resolve the relevant physical time and space scales but its application is limited to diffusive flows with a relatively small Reynolds number (Re). Using direct numerical simulation to provide a database, in turn, allows calibration of phenomenological turbulence models for engineering applications. Large eddy simulation incorporates a form of turbulence modeling applicable when the large-scale flows of interest are intrinsically time dependent, thus throwing common statistical models into question. A promising approach to large eddy simulation involves the use of high-resolution monotone computational fluid dynamics algorithms such as flux-corrected transport or the piecewise parabolic method which have intrinsic subgrid turbulence models coupled naturally to the resolved scales in the computed flow. The physical considerations underlying and evidence supporting this monotone integrated large eddy simulation approach are discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, a review examines the origins of shaped film cooling and summarizes the extant literature knowledge concerning the performance of such film holes, showing the basic shaping geometries, parameter ranges, and types of data obtained.
Abstract: Film cooling represents one of the few game-changing technologies that has allowed the achievement of today's high firing temperature, high-efficiency gas turbine engines. Over the last 30 years, only one major advancement has been realized in this technology, that being the incorporation of exit shaping to the film holes to result in lower momentum coolant injection jets with greater surface coverage. This review examines the origins of shaped film cooling and summarizes the extant literature knowledge concerning the performance of such film holes. A catalog of the current literature data is presented, showing the basic shaping geometries, parameter ranges, and types of data obtained. Specific discussions are provided for the flow field and aerodynamic losses of shaped film hole coolant injection. The major fundamental effects due to coolant-to-gas blowing ratio, compound angle injection, cooling hole entry flow character, and mainstream turbulence intensity are each reviewed with respect to the resulting adiabatic film effectiveness and heat transfer coefficients for shaped holes. A specific example of shaped film effectiveness is provided for a production turbine inlet vane with comparison to other data. Several recent unconventional forms of film hole shaping are also presented as a look to future potential improvements
TL;DR: The role of the concepts behind the SST model in current and future CFD simulations of engineering flows is outlined and the overall turbulence modelling strategy for ANSYS computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is outlined.
Abstract: The present author was asked to provide an update on the status and the more recent developments around the shear-stress transport (SST) turbulence model for this special issue of the journal. The article is therefore not intended as a comprehensive overview of the status of engineering turbulence modelling in general, nor on the overall turbulence modelling strategy for ANSYS computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in particular. It is clear from many decades of turbulence modelling that no single model-nor even a single modelling approach-can solve all engineering flows. Any successful CFD code will therefore have to offer a wide range of models from simple Eddy-viscosity models through second moment closures all the way to the variety of unsteady modelling concepts currently under development. This article is solely intended to outline the role of the concepts behind the SST model in current and future CFD simulations of engineering flows.