D. Vidya Sagar
Other affiliations: Indian Institutes of Technology
Bio: D. Vidya Sagar is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Diesel fuel & Piperitone. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publication(s) receiving 3054 citation(s). Previous affiliations of D. Vidya Sagar include Indian Institutes of Technology.
01 Jun 2006-Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews
Abstract: Biodiesel is gaining more and more importance as an attractive fuel due to the depleting fossil fuel resources. Chemically biodiesel is monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feed stock like vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by transesterification in which, oil or fat is reacted with a monohydric alcohol in presence of a catalyst. The process of transesterification is affected by the mode of reaction condition, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, type and amount of catalysts, reaction time and temperature and purity of reactants. In the present paper various methods of preparation of biodiesel with different combination of oil and catalysts have been described. The technical tools and processes for monitoring the transesterification reactions like TLC, GC, HPLC, GPC, 1H NMR and NIR have also been summarized. In addition, fuel properties and specifications provided by different countries are discussed.
18 Oct 2005-Journal of Essential Oil Research
Abstract: The chemical compositions of the essential oils of Tagetes patula leaf, capitula and total above ground herb collected from Farrukhnagar (28°N, 76°E), Haryana, India were subjected to analysis by GC and GC/MS. The major constituents of the oils were limonene (6.2–13.6%), (Z)-(3-ocimene (0.3–8.3%), dihydrotagetone (4.5–8.1%), terpinolene (0–11.2%), p-cymen-8-ol (3.4–11.0%), piperitone (6.1–11.9%), piperitenone (2.7–8.1%), β-caryophyllene (2.3–8.0%) and trans-sesquisabinene hydrate (2.0–12.5%).
01 May 2007-Biotechnology Advances
TL;DR: As demonstrated here, microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels.
Abstract: Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel derived from oil crops is a potential renewable and carbon neutral alternative to petroleum fuels. Unfortunately, biodiesel from oil crops, waste cooking oil and animal fat cannot realistically satisfy even a small fraction of the existing demand for transport fuels. As demonstrated here, microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Like plants, microalgae use sunlight to produce oils but they do so more efficiently than crop plants. Oil productivity of many microalgae greatly exceeds the oil productivity of the best producing oil crops. Approaches for making microalgal biodiesel economically competitive with petrodiesel are discussed.
01 Feb 2010-Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews
Abstract: Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. For the future re-arrangement of a sustainable economy to biological raw materials, completely new approaches in research and development, production, and economy are necessary. The ‘first-generation’ biofuels appear unsustainable because of the potential stress that their production places on food commodities. For organic chemicals and materials these needs to follow a biorefinery model under environmentally sustainable conditions. Where these operate at present, their product range is largely limited to simple materials (i.e. cellulose, ethanol, and biofuels). Second generation biorefineries need to build on the need for sustainable chemical products through modern and proven green chemical technologies such as bioprocessing including pyrolysis, Fisher Tropsch, and other catalytic processes in order to make more complex molecules and materials on which a future sustainable society will be based. This review focus on cost effective technologies and the processes to convert biomass into useful liquid biofuels and bioproducts, with particular focus on some biorefinery concepts based on different feedstocks aiming at the integral utilization of these feedstocks for the production of value added chemicals.
01 Jan 2009-Bioresource Technology
TL;DR: A triangular graph based on the composition in monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated methyl esters was built in order to predict the critical parameters of European standard for whatever biodiesel, known its composition.
Abstract: The aim of this work was the study of the influence of the raw material composition on biodiesel quality, using a transesterification reaction. Thus, ten refined vegetable oils were transesterificated using potassium methoxide as catalyst and standard reaction conditions (reaction time, 1 h; weight of catalyst, 1 wt.% of initial oil weight; molar ratio methanol/oil, 6/1; reaction temperature, 60 °C). Biodiesel quality was tested according to the standard [UNE-EN 14214, 2003. Automotive fuels. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. Requirements and test methods]. Some critical parameters like oxidation stability, cetane number, iodine value and cold filter plugging point were correlated with the methyl ester composition of each biodiesel, according to two parameters: degree of unsaturation and long chain saturated factor. Finally, a triangular graph based on the composition in monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated methyl esters was built in order to predict the critical parameters of European standard for whatever biodiesel, known its composition.
01 Feb 2007-Progress in Energy and Combustion Science
Abstract: In this paper, the modern biomass-based transportation fuels such as fuels from Fischer–Tropsch synthesis, bioethanol, fatty acid (m)ethylester, biomethanol, and biohydrogen are briefly reviewed. Here, the term biofuel is referred to as liquid or gaseous fuels for the transport sector that are predominantly produced from biomass. There are several reasons for bio-fuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. They include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The term modern biomass is generally used to describe the traditional biomass use through the efficient and clean combustion technologies and sustained supply of biomass resources, environmentally sound and competitive fuels, heat and electricity using modern conversion technologies. Modern biomass can be used for the generation of electricity and heat. Bioethanol and biodiesel as well as diesel produced from biomass by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis are the most modern biomass-based transportation fuels. Bio-ethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. It is possible that wood, straw and even household wastes may be economically converted to bio-ethanol. Bio-ethanol is derived from alcoholic fermentation of sucrose or simple sugars, which are produced from biomass by hydrolysis process. Currently crops generating starch, sugar or oil are the basis for transport fuel production. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel is a renewable replacement to petroleum-based diesel. Biomass energy conversion facilities are important for obtaining bio-oil. Pyrolysis is the most important process among the thermal conversion processes of biomass. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the thermochemical conversions of biomass fuels are presented. The percentage share of biomass was 62.1% of the total renewable energy sources in 1995. The reduction of greenhouse gases pollution is the main advantage of utilizing biomass energy.
28 Jan 2008-Chemical Society Reviews
TL;DR: This paper provides a comprehensive review and critical analysis on the different reaction pathways for catalytic conversion of glycerol into commodity chemicals, including selective oxidation, selective hydrogenolysis, selective dehydration, pyrolysis and gasification, steam reforming, thermal reduction into syngas, selective transesterification, selective etherification, oligomerization and polymerization, and conversion of Glycerol carbonate.
Abstract: New opportunities for the conversion of glycerol into value-added chemicals have emerged in recent years as a result of glycerol's unique structure, properties, bioavailability, and renewability. Glycerol is currently produced in large amounts during the transesterification of fatty acids into biodiesel and as such represents a useful by-product. This paper provides a comprehensive review and critical analysis on the different reaction pathways for catalytic conversion of glycerol into commodity chemicals, including selective oxidation, selective hydrogenolysis, selective dehydration, pyrolysis and gasification, steam reforming, thermal reduction into syngas, selective transesterification, selective etherification, oligomerization and polymerization, and conversion of glycerol into glycerol carbonate.