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Dane Morgan

Bio: Dane Morgan is an academic researcher from University of Wisconsin-Madison. The author has contributed to research in topics: Perovskite (structure) & Ab initio. The author has an hindex of 60, co-authored 419 publications receiving 17992 citations. Previous affiliations of Dane Morgan include Bar-Ilan University & Northwestern University.


Papers
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TL;DR: In this paper, the first principles pseudopotential method was used to determine the electronic structure, atomic geometry, and formation energy of native point defects in ZnO and showed that both the Zn and O vacancies are the relevant defects.
Abstract: The characterization of native point defects in ZnO is still a question of debate. For example, experimental evidence for ZnO with an excess of Zn is inconclusive as to whether the dominant defects are metal interstitials or oxygen vacancies. This information is essential to understand the behavior of the material and to tailor its numerous technological applications. We use the first-principles pseudopotential method to determine the electronic structure, atomic geometry, and formation energy of native point defects in ZnO. Interstitials, vacancies, and antisites in their relevant charge states are considered and the effects of dopants are also discussed. The results show that both the Zn and O vacancies are the relevant defects in ZnO. We also propose a possible transition mechanism and defect center responsible for the experimentally observed green luminescence.

1,576 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a short-stack of proton exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs operated at open-circuit voltage 0.95 V was shown to have higher surface area loss than another operated under load 0.75 V.
Abstract: Equilibrium concentrations of dissolved platinum species from a Pt/C electrocatalyst sample in 0.5 M H2SO4 at 80°C were found to increase with applied potential from 0.9 to 1.1 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode. In addition, platinum surface area loss for a short-stack of proton exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs operated at open-circuit voltage 0.95 V was shown to be higher than another operated under load 0.75 V. Both findings suggest that the formation of soluble platinum species such as Pt 2+ plays an important role in platinum surface loss in PEMFC electrodes. As accelerated platinum surface area loss in the cathode from 63 to 23 m 2 /gPt in 100 h was observed upon potential cycling, a cycled membrane electrode assembly MEA cathode was examined in detail by incidence angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy TEM to reveal processes responsible for observed platinum loss. In this study, TEM data and analyses of Pt/C catalyst and cross-sectional MEA cathode samples unambiguously confirmed that coarsening of platinum particles occurred via two different processes: i Ostwald ripening on carbon at the nanometer scale, which is responsible for platinum particle coarsening from 3t o6 nm on carbon, and ii migration of soluble platinum species in the ionomer phase at the micrometer scale, chemical reduction of these species by crossover H2 molecules, and precipitation of platinum particles in the cathode ionomer phase, which reduces the weight of platinum on carbon. It was estimated that each process contributed to 50% of the overall platinum area loss of the potential cycled electrode.

1,322 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, activation barriers to Li ion motion are calculated and an estimate for Li diffusion constants, in the absence of electrical conductivity constraints, is made using first-principles methods.
Abstract: Materials with the olivine structure form an important class of rechargeable battery cathodes. Using first-principles methods, activation barriers to Li ion motion are calculated and an estimate for Li diffusion constants, in the absence of electrical conductivity constraints, is made. Materials with Fe, Co, Ni are considered. Li diffuses through one-dimensional channels with high energy barriers to cross between the channels. Without electrical conductivity limitations the intrinsic Li diffusivity is high. © 2003 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

1,005 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the DFT+U method with a self-consistent evaluation of the U parameter to reproduce the lithium intercalation voltages of a number of transition metal compounds.
Abstract: First-principles calculations within the local density approximation (LDA) or generalized gradient approximation (GGA), though very successful, are known to underestimate redox potentials, such as those at which lithium intercalates in transition metal compounds. We argue that this inaccuracy is related to the lack of cancellation of electron self-interaction errors in LDA/GGA and can be improved by using the DFT+U method with a self-consistent evaluation of the U parameter. We show that, using this approach, the experimental lithium intercalation voltages of a number of transition metal compounds, including the olivine Li xMPO4 (M = Mn, Fe Co, Ni), layered LixMO2 (x = Co, Ni) and spinel-like LixM2O4 (M = Mn, Co), can be reproduced accurately.

832 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the surface area loss of supported platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts in low-temperature fuel cells was discussed and it was argued that submonolayer dissolution of Pt nanoparticles governs the surface loss at high voltages by increasing the loss of Pt from carbon and coarsening of Pt on carbon.
Abstract: This paper discusses the mechanisms of surface area loss of supported platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. It is argued that submonolayer dissolution of Pt nanoparticles governs the surface area loss at high voltages by increasing the loss of Pt from carbon and coarsening of Pt nanoparticles on carbon.

822 citations


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08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

29,323 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The semiconductor ZnO has gained substantial interest in the research community in part because of its large exciton binding energy (60meV) which could lead to lasing action based on exciton recombination even above room temperature.
Abstract: The semiconductor ZnO has gained substantial interest in the research community in part because of its large exciton binding energy (60meV) which could lead to lasing action based on exciton recombination even above room temperature. Even though research focusing on ZnO goes back many decades, the renewed interest is fueled by availability of high-quality substrates and reports of p-type conduction and ferromagnetic behavior when doped with transitions metals, both of which remain controversial. It is this renewed interest in ZnO which forms the basis of this review. As mentioned already, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field, with studies of its lattice parameter dating back to 1935 by Bunn [Proc. Phys. Soc. London 47, 836 (1935)], studies of its vibrational properties with Raman scattering in 1966 by Damen et al. [Phys. Rev. 142, 570 (1966)], detailed optical studies in 1954 by Mollwo [Z. Angew. Phys. 6, 257 (1954)], and its growth by chemical-vapor transport in 1970 by Galli and Coker [Appl. Phys. ...

10,260 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1988-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These

9,929 citations