Author

# Daryoosh Vashaee

Bio: Daryoosh Vashaee is an academic researcher from North Carolina State University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Thermoelectric effect & Thermoelectric materials. The author has an hindex of 48, co-authored 225 publication(s) receiving 15724 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Daryoosh Vashaee include University of California, Santa Cruz & Oklahoma State University–Tulsa.

##### Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
, Qing Hao2, Yi Ma1, Bo Yu1, Xiao Yan1
02 May 2008-Science
TL;DR: Electrical transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies and modeling, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low thermal conductivity caused by the increased phonon scattering by grain boundaries and defects, which makes these materials useful for cooling and power generation.
Abstract: The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in bismuth antimony telluride (BiSbTe) bulk alloys has remained around 1 for more than 50 years. We show that a peak ZT of 1.4 at 100°C can be achieved in a p-type nanocrystalline BiSbTe bulk alloy. These nanocrystalline bulk materials were made by hot pressing nanopowders that were ball-milled from crystalline ingots under inert conditions. Electrical transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies and modeling, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low thermal conductivity caused by the increased phonon scattering by grain boundaries and defects. More importantly, ZT is about 1.2 at room temperature and 0.8 at 250°C, which makes these materials useful for cooling and power generation. Cooling devices that use these materials have produced high-temperature differences of 86°, 106°, and 119°C with hot-side temperatures set at 50°, 100°, and 150°C, respectively. This discovery sets the stage for use of a new nanocomposite approach in developing high-performance low-cost bulk thermoelectric materials.

4,218 citations

Journal Article
Bed Poudel

3,869 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that metal-based superlattices with tall barriers can achieve a large effective thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT > 5 at room temperature), a key parameter to achieving high performance is the nonconservation of lateral momentum during the thermionic emission process.
Abstract: In this paper we present a detailed theory of electron and thermoelectric transport perpendicular to heterostructure superlattices. This nonlinear transport regime above barriers is also called heterostructure thermionic emission. We show that metal-based superlattices with tall barriers can achieve a large effective thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT > 5 at room temperature). A key parameter to achieving high performance is the nonconservation of lateral momentum during the thermionic emission process. Conservation of lateral momentum is a consequence of translational symmetry in the plane of the superlattice. We also discuss the use of nonplanar barriers and embedded quantum dot structures to achieve high thermoelectric conversion efficiency.

448 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore electron filtering as a technique to increase the Seebeck coefficient and the thermoelectric power factor of heterostructured materials over that of the bulk.
Abstract: In this paper, we explore electron filtering as a technique to increase the Seebeck coefficient and the thermoelectric power factor of heterostructured materials over that of the bulk We present a theoretical model in which the Seebeck coefficient and the power factor can be increased in an ${\mathrm{In}}_{053}{\mathrm{Ga}}_{047}\mathrm{As}$-based composite material Experimental measurements of the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient are presented and confirm the importance of the electron filtering technique to decouple the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient to increase the thermoelectric power factor

322 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

TL;DR: The mechanism for phonon scattering by nanostructures and by point defects in nano-structured silicon and the silicon germanium (Ge) alloy and their thermoelectric properties are investigated in this article.
Abstract: The mechanism for phonon scattering by nanostructures and by point defects in nanostructured silicon (Si) and the silicon germanium (Ge) alloy and their thermoelectric properties are investigated. We found that the thermal conductivity is reduced by a factor of 10 in nanostructured Si in comparison with bulk crystalline Si. However, nanosize interfaces are not as effective as point defects in scattering phonons with wavelengths shorter than 1 nm. We further found that a $5\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{at}.\text{ }%$ Ge replacing Si is very efficient in scattering phonons shorter than 1 nm, resulting in a further thermal conductivity reduction by a factor of 2, thereby leading to a thermoelectric figure of merit 0.95 for ${\mathrm{Si}}_{95}{\mathrm{Ge}}_{5}$, similar to that of large grained ${\mathrm{Si}}_{80}{\mathrm{Ge}}_{20}$ alloys.

237 citations

##### Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

30,199 citations

Journal Article

28,684 citations

01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

24,496 citations

28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1）与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用，在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1（PfPMP1）与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用，在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员，通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new era of complex thermoelectric materials is approaching because of modern synthesis and characterization techniques, particularly for nanoscale materials, and the strategies used to improve the thermopower and reduce the thermal conductivity are reviewed.
Abstract: Thermoelectric materials, which can generate electricity from waste heat or be used as solid-state Peltier coolers, could play an important role in a global sustainable energy solution. Such a development is contingent on identifying materials with higher thermoelectric efficiency than available at present, which is a challenge owing to the conflicting combination of material traits that are required. Nevertheless, because of modern synthesis and characterization techniques, particularly for nanoscale materials, a new era of complex thermoelectric materials is approaching. We review recent advances in the field, highlighting the strategies used to improve the thermopower and reduce the thermal conductivity.

7,699 citations