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David A. Paul

Bio: David A. Paul is an academic researcher from Christiana Care Health System. The author has contributed to research in topics: Low birth weight & Population. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 107 publications receiving 1912 citations. Previous affiliations of David A. Paul include Thomas Jefferson University & Dupont Hospital.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that common pathogens causing sepsis have different effects on platelet kinetics, and fungal and Gram-negative pathogens are associated with a lower platelet count and more prolonged thrombocytopenia compared with Gram-positive pathogens.
Abstract: Objective. Thrombocytopenia is commonly observed in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates with sepsis. Specific platelet responses to different infectious agents have not been extensively characterized. The objectives of this study were to examine platelet counts and platelet indices in preterm neonates with culture-proven sepsis to determine if there are organism-specific platelet responses. Study Design. We analyzed a cohort of all VLBW neonates (birthweight Results. Sepsis was diagnosed in 154 (16%) of 943 patients in the study population. Of the sepsis episodes, 54% were associated with thrombocytopenia and 61% with an elevation in MPV. Infections were grouped by organism type: Gram-positive bacteria (117/154, 76%), Gram-negative bacteria (24/154, 16%), and fungi (13/154, 8%). When compared with patients with Gram-positive sepsis, those with Gram-negative or fungal sepsis had a significantly lower initial platelet count, a lower platelet nadir, a higher incidence of thrombocytopenia, and a greater duration of thrombocytopenia. The decrease in platelet count from baseline was also significantly less in the Gram-positive infections than in the fungal infections. Although there was an overall increase in MPV from baseline, there were no differences between groups. Conclusions. In our population of VLBW infants, sepsis is frequently associated with thrombocytopenia and an elevation in MPV. However, fungal and Gram-negative pathogens are associated with a lower platelet count and more prolonged thrombocytopenia compared with Gram-positive pathogens. We conclude that common pathogens causing sepsis have different effects on platelet kinetics.

195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the study sample, PRBC transfusion was associated with increased odds of NEC, and the rate of NEC after transfusions was 1.4%.
Abstract: WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This study was conducted in a large population, and the results confirm the association between packed red blood cell transfusion and NEC. Adjusted odds for NEC in infants who received a transfusion were 2.3, and there was a preponderance of male donors for blood transfused preceding NEC. abstract To determine if infants with very low birth weight who receive packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions have increased odds of developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), to determine the rate of NEC after PRBC transfusion, and to characterize the blood transfused preceding the onset of NEC. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort design was used. The study population included infants with a birth weight of 1500 g who were from a single center. NEC after transfusion was defined as NEC that occurred in the 48 hours after initiation of PRBC transfusion. Statistical analysis included unadjusted and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The study sample included 2311 infants. A total of 122 infants (5.3%) developed NEC, and 33 (27%) of 122 NEC cases occurred after transfusion. NEC occurred after 33 (1.4%) of 2315 total transfusions. Infants who received a transfusion had increased adjusted odds (odds ratio: 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.2- 4.2)) of developing NEC com- pared with infants who did not receive a transfusion. PRBCs transfused before NEC were predominantly (83%) from male donors and were a median of 5 days old. CONCLUSIONS: In our study sample, PRBC transfusion was associated with increased odds of NEC. The rate of NEC after transfusion was 1.4%. From our data we could not determine if PRBC transfusions were part of the causal pathway for NEC or were indicative of other factors that may be causal for NEC. Pediatrics 2011;127:635-641

159 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The CDC 12-Step Campaign can be modified for neonatal populations and improvement efforts should target antibiotic use 72 hours after initiation, particularly focusing on narrowing therapy and instituting protocols to limit prophylaxis.
Abstract: Background:The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 12-Step Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance was launched to educate clinicians about antimicrobial resistance and provide strategies to improve clinical practice, including antimicrobial utilization.Methods:A multicenter retros

135 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the neonatologist's role in parent education is satisfactory, the parents identified the nurses as the primary source of information.
Abstract: To determine what sources of information are most helpful for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents, who provides NICU parents with the information, and also what expectations parents have regarding obtaining information. A 19-item questionnaire was given to the parents of infants 32 weeks or younger prior to discharge from the NICU. Out of the 101 parents who consented, almost all of the parents (96%) felt that ‘the medical team gave them the information they needed about their baby’ and that the ‘neonatologist did a good job of communicating’ with them (91%). However, the nurse was chosen as ‘the person who spent the most time explaining the baby's condition, ‘the best source of information,’ and the person who told them ‘about important changes in their baby's condition’ (P<0.01). Although the neonatologist's role in parent education is satisfactory, the parents identified the nurses as the primary source of information.

106 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A safe means of reducing PLT transfusions to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with thrombocytopenia is sought by comparing two transfusion guidelines, one based on PLT count and the other onPLT mass.

79 citations


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01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The using multivariate statistics is universally compatible with any devices to read, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of the authors' books like this one.
Abstract: Thank you for downloading using multivariate statistics. As you may know, people have look hundreds times for their favorite novels like this using multivariate statistics, but end up in infectious downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of tea in the afternoon, instead they juggled with some harmful bugs inside their laptop. using multivariate statistics is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our books collection saves in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Merely said, the using multivariate statistics is universally compatible with any devices to read.

14,604 citations

01 Feb 2009
TL;DR: This Secret History documentary follows experts as they pick through the evidence and reveal why the plague killed on such a scale, and what might be coming next.
Abstract: Secret History: Return of the Black Death Channel 4, 7-8pm In 1348 the Black Death swept through London, killing people within days of the appearance of their first symptoms. Exactly how many died, and why, has long been a mystery. This Secret History documentary follows experts as they pick through the evidence and reveal why the plague killed on such a scale. And they ask, what might be coming next?

5,234 citations

01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: Physicians should consider modification of immunosuppressive regimens to decrease the risk of PTD in high-risk transplant recipients and Randomized trials are needed to evaluate the use of oral glucose-lowering agents in transplant recipients.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE — To systematically review the incidence of posttransplantation diabetes (PTD), risk factors for its development, prognostic implications, and optimal management. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — We searched databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and others) from inception to September 2000, reviewed bibliographies in reports retrieved, contacted transplantation experts, and reviewed specialty journals. Two reviewers independently determined report inclusion (original studies, in all languages, of PTD in adults with no history of diabetes before transplantation), assessed study methods, and extracted data using a standardized form. Meta-regression was used to explain between-study differences in incidence. RESULTS — Nineteen studies with 3,611 patients were included. The 12-month cumulative incidence of PTD is lower (10% in most studies) than it was 3 decades ago. The type of immunosuppression explained 74% of the variability in incidence (P 0.0004). Risk factors were patient age, nonwhite ethnicity, glucocorticoid treatment for rejection, and immunosuppression with high-dose cyclosporine and tacrolimus. PTD was associated with decreased graft and patient survival in earlier studies; later studies showed improved outcomes. Randomized trials of treatment regimens have not been conducted. CONCLUSIONS — Physicians should consider modification of immunosuppressive regimens to decrease the risk of PTD in high-risk transplant recipients. Randomized trials are needed to evaluate the use of oral glucose-lowering agents in transplant recipients, paying particular attention to interactions with immunosuppressive drugs. Diabetes Care 25:583–592, 2002

3,716 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an extension to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement for randomised pilot and feasibility trials conducted in advance of a future definitive RCT.
Abstract: The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement is a guideline designed to improve the transparency and quality of the reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). In this article we present an extension to that statement for randomised pilot and feasibility trials conducted in advance of a future definitive RCT. The checklist applies to any randomised study in which a future definitive RCT, or part of it, is conducted on a smaller scale, regardless of its design (eg, cluster, factorial, crossover) or the terms used by authors to describe the study (eg, pilot, feasibility, trial, study). The extension does not directly apply to internal pilot studies built into the design of a main trial, non-randomised pilot and feasibility studies, or phase II studies, but these studies all have some similarities to randomised pilot and feasibility studies and so many of the principles might also apply. The development of the extension was motivated by the growing number of studies described as feasibility or pilot studies and by research that has identified weaknesses in their reporting and conduct. We followed recommended good practice to develop the extension, including carrying out a Delphi survey, holding a consensus meeting and research team meetings, and piloting the checklist. The aims and objectives of pilot and feasibility randomised studies differ from those of other randomised trials. Consequently, although much of the information to be reported in these trials is similar to those in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing effectiveness and efficacy, there are some key differences in the type of information and in the appropriate interpretation of standard CONSORT reporting items. We have retained some of the original CONSORT statement items, but most have been adapted, some removed, and new items added. The new items cover how participants were identified and consent obtained; if applicable, the prespecified criteria used to judge whether or how to proceed with a future definitive RCT; if relevant, other important unintended consequences; implications for progression from pilot to future definitive RCT, including any proposed amendments; and ethical approval or approval by a research review committee confirmed with a reference number. This article includes the 26 item checklist, a separate checklist for the abstract, a template for a CONSORT flowchart for these studies, and an explanation of the changes made and supporting examples. We believe that routine use of this proposed extension to the CONSORT statement will result in improvements in the reporting of pilot trials. Editor’s note: In order to encourage its wide dissemination this article is freely accessible on the BMJ and Pilot and Feasibility Studies journal websites.

1,799 citations