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Author

David Beach

Bio: David Beach is an academic researcher from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 & Cell cycle. The author has an hindex of 97, co-authored 204 publication(s) receiving 54757 citation(s). Previous affiliations of David Beach include Howard Hughes Medical Institute & Max Planck Society.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Manuel Serrano1, Athena W. Lin1, Mila E. McCurrach1, David Beach2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
07 Mar 1997-Cell
TL;DR: It is shown that expression of oncogenic ras in primary human or rodent cells results in a permanent G1 arrest, and that the onset of cellular senescence does not simply reflect the accumulation of cell divisions, but can be prematurely activated in response to an onCogenic stimulus.
Abstract: Oncogenic ras can transform most immortal rodent cells to a tumorigenic state. However, transformation of primary cells by ras requires either a cooperating oncogene or the inactivation of tumor suppressors such as p53 or p16. Here we show that expression of oncogenic ras in primary human or rodent cells results in a permanent G1 arrest. The arrest induced by ras is accompanied by accumulation of p53 and p16, and is phenotypically indistinguishable from cellular senescence. Inactivation of either p53 or p16 prevents ras-induced arrest in rodent cells, and E1A achieves a similar effect in human cells. These observations suggest that the onset of cellular senescence does not simply reflect the accumulation of cell divisions, but can be prematurely activated in response to an oncogenic stimulus. Negation of ras-induced senescence may be relevant during multistep tumorigenesis.

4,485 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
16 Dec 1993-Nature
TL;DR: P16 seems to act in a regulatory feedback circuit with CDK4, D-type cyclins and retinoblastoma protein, and inhibits the catalytic activity of theCDK4/cyclin D enzymes.
Abstract: The division cycle of eukaryotic cells is regulated by a family of protein kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The sequential activation of individual members of this family and their consequent phosphorylation of critical substrates promotes orderly progression through the cell cycle. The complexes formed by CDK4 and the D-type cyclins have been strongly implicated in the control of cell proliferation during the G1 phase. CDK4 exists, in part, as a multi-protein complex with a D-type cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a protein, p21 (refs 7-9). CDK4 associates separately with a protein of M(r) 16K, particularly in cells lacking a functional retinoblastoma protein. Here we report the isolation of a human p16 complementary DNA and demonstrate that p16 binds to CDK4 and inhibits the catalytic activity of the CDK4/cyclin D enzymes. p16 seems to act in a regulatory feedback circuit with CDK4, D-type cyclins and retinoblastoma protein.

3,608 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yue Xiong1, Gregory J. Hannon1, Gregory J. Hannon2, Hui Zhang1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
16 Dec 1993-Nature
TL;DR: It is found that over expression of p21 inhibits the activity of each member of the cyclin/CDK family, and this results indicate that p21 may be a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases.
Abstract: Deregulation of cell proliferation is a hallmark of neoplastic transformation. Alteration in growth control pathways must translate into changes in the cell-cycle regulatory machinery, but the mechanism by which this occurs is largely unknown. Compared with normal human fibroblasts, cells transformed with a variety of viral oncoproteins show striking changes in the subunit composition of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). In normal cells, CDKs exist predominantly in multiple quaternary complexes, each containing a CDK, cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the p21 protein. However, in many transformed cells, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p21 are lost from these multiprotein enzymes. Here we have investigated the significance of this phenomenon by molecular cloning of p21 and in vitro reconstitution of the quaternary cell-cycle kinase complexes. We find that p21 inhibits the activity of each member of the cyclin/CDK family. Furthermore, overexpression of p21 inhibits the proliferation of mammalian cells. Our results indicate that p21 may be a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases.

3,370 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Scott Hammond, Emily Bernstein1, Emily Bernstein2, David Beach3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
16 Mar 2000-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that ‘loss-of-function’ phenotypes can be created in cultured Drosophila cells by transfection with specific double-stranded RNAs, which coincides with a marked reduction in the level of cognate cellular messenger RNAs.
Abstract: In a diverse group of organisms that includes Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, planaria, hydra, trypanosomes, fungi and plants, the introduction of double-stranded RNAs inhibits gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. These responses, called RNA interference or post-transcriptional gene silencing, may provide anti-viral defence, modulate transposition or regulate gene expression. We have taken a biochemical approach towards elucidating the mechanisms underlying this genetic phenomenon. Here we show that 'loss-of-function' phenotypes can be created in cultured Drosophila cells by transfection with specific double-stranded RNAs. This coincides with a marked reduction in the level of cognate cellular messenger RNAs. Extracts of transfected cells contain a nuclease activity that specifically degrades exogenous transcripts homologous to transfected double-stranded RNA. This enzyme contains an essential RNA component. After partial purification, the sequence-specific nuclease co-fractionates with a discrete, approximately 25-nucleotide RNA species which may confer specificity to the enzyme through homology to the substrate mRNAs.

3,109 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Gregory J. Hannon1, David Beach1Institutions (1)
15 Sep 1994-Nature
TL;DR: A new member of the p16INK4 family is isolated, p15INK4B, which is induced ∼30-fold in human keratinocytes by treatment with TGF-β, suggesting that pi5 may act as an effector of T GF-β-mediated cell cycle arrest.
Abstract: TRANSFORMING growth factor-beta (TGF-β) inhibits cell proliferation by inducing a Gl-phase cell cycle arrest1. Normal progression through Gl is promoted by the activity of the cyclin-dependent protein kinases CDK4 and CDK6 (ref. 2), which are inhibited by the protein p16INK4. We have isolated a new member of the p16INK4 family, p15INK4B. p15 expression is induced ∼30-fold in human keratinocytes by treatment with TGF-β, suggesting that pi5 may act as an effector of TGF-β-mediated cell cycle arrest. The gene encoding p15 is located on chromosome 9 adjacent to the p16 gene at a frequent site of chromosomal abnormality in human tumours (9p21).

1,795 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
David P. Bartel1Institutions (1)
23 Jan 2004-Cell
TL;DR: Although they escaped notice until relatively recently, miRNAs comprise one of the more abundant classes of gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms and likely influence the output of many protein-coding genes.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ∼22 nt RNAs that can play important regulatory roles in animals and plants by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Although they escaped notice until relatively recently, miRNAs comprise one of the more abundant classes of gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms and likely influence the output of many protein-coding genes.

30,422 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Douglas Hanahan1, Robert A. Weinberg2Institutions (2)
07 Jan 2000-Cell
TL;DR: This work has been supported by the Department of the Army and the National Institutes of Health, and the author acknowledges the support and encouragement of the National Cancer Institute.
Abstract: We wish to thank Terry Schoop of Biomed Arts Associates, San Francisco, for preparation of the figures, Cori Bargmann and Zena Werb for insightful comments on the manuscript, and Normita Santore for editorial assistance. In addition, we are indebted to Joe Harford and Richard Klausner, who allowed us to adapt and expand their depiction of the cell signaling network, and we appreciate suggestions on signaling pathways from Randy Watnick, Brian Elenbas, Bill Lundberg, Dave Morgan, and Henry Bourne. R. A. W. is a Ludwig Foundation and American Cancer Society Professor of Biology. His work has been supported by the Department of the Army and the National Institutes of Health. D. H. acknowledges the support and encouragement of the National Cancer Institute. Editorial policy has rendered the citations illustrative but not comprehensive.

26,950 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method that assigns a score to each gene on the basis of change in gene expression relative to the standard deviation of repeated measurements is described, suggesting that this repair pathway for UV-damaged DNA might play a previously unrecognized role in repairing DNA damaged by ionizing radiation.
Abstract: Microarrays can measure the expression of thousands of genes to identify changes in expression between different biological states. Methods are needed to determine the significance of these changes while accounting for the enormous number of genes. We describe a method, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), that assigns a score to each gene on the basis of change in gene expression relative to the standard deviation of repeated measurements. For genes with scores greater than an adjustable threshold, SAM uses permutations of the repeated measurements to estimate the percentage of genes identified by chance, the false discovery rate (FDR). When the transcriptional response of human cells to ionizing radiation was measured by microarrays, SAM identified 34 genes that changed at least 1.5-fold with an estimated FDR of 12%, compared with FDRs of 60 and 84% by using conventional methods of analysis. Of the 34 genes, 19 were involved in cell cycle regulation and 3 in apoptosis. Surprisingly, four nucleotide excision repair genes were induced, suggesting that this repair pathway for UV-damaged DNA might play a previously unrecognized role in repairing DNA damaged by ionizing radiation.

11,833 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Lisa M. Coussens1, Zena Werb1Institutions (1)
19 Dec 2002-Nature
TL;DR: It is now becoming clear that the tumour microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory cells, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, fostering proliferation, survival and migration.
Abstract: Recent data have expanded the concept that inflammation is a critical component of tumour progression. Many cancers arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation. It is now becoming clear that the tumour microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory cells, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, fostering proliferation, survival and migration. In addition, tumour cells have co-opted some of the signalling molecules of the innate immune system, such as selectins, chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis. These insights are fostering new anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches to cancer development.

11,085 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
22 May 2009-Science
TL;DR: It is proposed that the metabolism of cancer cells, and indeed all proliferating cells, is adapted to facilitate the uptake and incorporation of nutrients into the biomass needed to produce a new cell.
Abstract: In contrast to normal differentiated cells, which rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to generate the energy needed for cellular processes, most cancer cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed “the Warburg effect.” Aerobic glycolysis is an inefficient way to generate adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), however, and the advantage it confers to cancer cells has been unclear. Here we propose that the metabolism of cancer cells, and indeed all proliferating cells, is adapted to facilitate the uptake and incorporation of nutrients into the biomass (e.g., nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids) needed to produce a new cell. Supporting this idea are recent studies showing that (i) several signaling pathways implicated in cell proliferation also regulate metabolic pathways that incorporate nutrients into biomass; and that (ii) certain cancer-associated mutations enable cancer cells to acquire and metabolize nutrients in a manner conducive to proliferation rather than efficient ATP production. A better understanding of the mechanistic links between cellular metabolism and growth control may ultimately lead to better treatments for human cancer.

10,427 citations


Network Information
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Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 97

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20141
20082
20071
20061
20056
20041