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Author

David J. Kriegman

Other affiliations: IEEE Computer Society, University of California, Yale University  ...read more
Bio: David J. Kriegman is an academic researcher from University of California, San Diego. The author has contributed to research in topics: Photometric stereo & Facial recognition system. The author has an hindex of 67, co-authored 221 publications receiving 40873 citations. Previous affiliations of David J. Kriegman include IEEE Computer Society & University of California.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A face recognition algorithm which is insensitive to large variation in lighting direction and facial expression is developed, based on Fisher's linear discriminant and produces well separated classes in a low-dimensional subspace, even under severe variations in lighting and facial expressions.
Abstract: We develop a face recognition algorithm which is insensitive to large variation in lighting direction and facial expression. Taking a pattern classification approach, we consider each pixel in an image as a coordinate in a high-dimensional space. We take advantage of the observation that the images of a particular face, under varying illumination but fixed pose, lie in a 3D linear subspace of the high dimensional image space-if the face is a Lambertian surface without shadowing. However, since faces are not truly Lambertian surfaces and do indeed produce self-shadowing, images will deviate from this linear subspace. Rather than explicitly modeling this deviation, we linearly project the image into a subspace in a manner which discounts those regions of the face with large deviation. Our projection method is based on Fisher's linear discriminant and produces well separated classes in a low-dimensional subspace, even under severe variation in lighting and facial expressions. The eigenface technique, another method based on linearly projecting the image space to a low dimensional subspace, has similar computational requirements. Yet, extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed "Fisherface" method has error rates that are lower than those of the eigenface technique for tests on the Harvard and Yale face databases.

11,674 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A generative appearance-based method for recognizing human faces under variation in lighting and viewpoint that exploits the fact that the set of images of an object in fixed pose but under all possible illumination conditions, is a convex cone in the space of images.
Abstract: We present a generative appearance-based method for recognizing human faces under variation in lighting and viewpoint. Our method exploits the fact that the set of images of an object in fixed pose, but under all possible illumination conditions, is a convex cone in the space of images. Using a small number of training images of each face taken with different lighting directions, the shape and albedo of the face can be reconstructed. In turn, this reconstruction serves as a generative model that can be used to render (or synthesize) images of the face under novel poses and illumination conditions. The pose space is then sampled and, for each pose, the corresponding illumination cone is approximated by a low-dimensional linear subspace whose basis vectors are estimated using the generative model. Our recognition algorithm assigns to a test image the identity of the closest approximated illumination cone. Test results show that the method performs almost without error, except on the most extreme lighting directions.

5,027 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors categorize and evaluate face detection algorithms and discuss relevant issues such as data collection, evaluation metrics and benchmarking, and conclude with several promising directions for future research.
Abstract: Images containing faces are essential to intelligent vision-based human-computer interaction, and research efforts in face processing include face recognition, face tracking, pose estimation and expression recognition. However, many reported methods assume that the faces in an image or an image sequence have been identified and localized. To build fully automated systems that analyze the information contained in face images, robust and efficient face detection algorithms are required. Given a single image, the goal of face detection is to identify all image regions which contain a face, regardless of its 3D position, orientation and lighting conditions. Such a problem is challenging because faces are non-rigid and have a high degree of variability in size, shape, color and texture. Numerous techniques have been developed to detect faces in a single image, and the purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these algorithms. We also discuss relevant issues such as data collection, evaluation metrics and benchmarking. After analyzing these algorithms and identifying their limitations, we conclude with several promising directions for future research.

3,894 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper shows how to arrange physical lighting so that the acquired images of each object can be directly used as the basis vectors of a low-dimensional linear space and that this subspace is close to those acquired by the other methods.
Abstract: Previous work has demonstrated that the image variation of many objects (human faces in particular) under variable lighting can be effectively modeled by low-dimensional linear spaces, even when there are multiple light sources and shadowing. Basis images spanning this space are usually obtained in one of three ways: a large set of images of the object under different lighting conditions is acquired, and principal component analysis (PCA) is used to estimate a subspace. Alternatively, synthetic images are rendered from a 3D model (perhaps reconstructed from images) under point sources and, again, PCA is used to estimate a subspace. Finally, images rendered from a 3D model under diffuse lighting based on spherical harmonics are directly used as basis images. In this paper, we show how to arrange physical lighting so that the acquired images of each object can be directly used as the basis vectors of a low-dimensional linear space and that this subspace is close to those acquired by the other methods. More specifically, there exist configurations of k point light source directions, with k typically ranging from 5 to 9, such that, by taking k images of an object under these single sources, the resulting subspace is an effective representation for recognition under a wide range of lighting conditions. Since the subspace is generated directly from real images, potentially complex and/or brittle intermediate steps such as 3D reconstruction can be completely avoided; nor is it necessary to acquire large numbers of training images or to physically construct complex diffuse (harmonic) light fields. We validate the use of subspaces constructed in this fashion within the context of face recognition.

2,472 citations

Book ChapterDOI
15 Apr 1996
TL;DR: A face recognition algorithm which is insensitive to gross variation in lighting direction and facial expression is developed and the proposed “Fisherface” method has error rates that are significantly lower than those of the Eigenface technique when tested on the same database.
Abstract: We develop a face recognition algorithm which is insensitive to gross variation in lighting direction and facial expression. Taking a pattern classification approach, we consider each pixel in an image as a coordinate in a high-dimensional space. We take advantage of the observation that the images of a particular face under varying illumination direction lie in a 3-D linear subspace of the high dimensional feature space — if the face is a Lambertian surface without self-shadowing. However, since faces are not truly Lambertian surfaces and do indeed produce self-shadowing, images will deviate from this linear subspace. Rather than explicitly modeling this deviation, we project the image into a subspace in a manner which discounts those regions of the face with large deviation. Our projection method is based on Fisher's Linear Discriminant and produces well separated classes in a low-dimensional subspace even under severe variation in lighting and facial expressions. The Eigenface technique, another method based on linearly projecting the image space to a low dimensional subspace, has similar computational requirements. Yet, extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed “Fisherface” method has error rates that are significantly lower than those of the Eigenface technique when tested on the same database.

2,428 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: This book is referred to read because it is an inspiring book to give you more chance to get experiences and also thoughts and it will show the best book collections and completed collections.
Abstract: Downloading the book in this website lists can give you more advantages. It will show you the best book collections and completed collections. So many books can be found in this website. So, this is not only this multiple view geometry in computer vision. However, this book is referred to read because it is an inspiring book to give you more chance to get experiences and also thoughts. This is simple, read the soft file of the book and you get it.

14,282 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A face recognition algorithm which is insensitive to large variation in lighting direction and facial expression is developed, based on Fisher's linear discriminant and produces well separated classes in a low-dimensional subspace, even under severe variations in lighting and facial expressions.
Abstract: We develop a face recognition algorithm which is insensitive to large variation in lighting direction and facial expression. Taking a pattern classification approach, we consider each pixel in an image as a coordinate in a high-dimensional space. We take advantage of the observation that the images of a particular face, under varying illumination but fixed pose, lie in a 3D linear subspace of the high dimensional image space-if the face is a Lambertian surface without shadowing. However, since faces are not truly Lambertian surfaces and do indeed produce self-shadowing, images will deviate from this linear subspace. Rather than explicitly modeling this deviation, we linearly project the image into a subspace in a manner which discounts those regions of the face with large deviation. Our projection method is based on Fisher's linear discriminant and produces well separated classes in a low-dimensional subspace, even under severe variation in lighting and facial expressions. The eigenface technique, another method based on linearly projecting the image space to a low dimensional subspace, has similar computational requirements. Yet, extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed "Fisherface" method has error rates that are lower than those of the eigenface technique for tests on the Harvard and Yale face databases.

11,674 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work considers the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise, and proposes a general classification algorithm for (image-based) object recognition based on a sparse representation computed by C1-minimization.
Abstract: We consider the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise. We cast the recognition problem as one of classifying among multiple linear regression models and argue that new theory from sparse signal representation offers the key to addressing this problem. Based on a sparse representation computed by C1-minimization, we propose a general classification algorithm for (image-based) object recognition. This new framework provides new insights into two crucial issues in face recognition: feature extraction and robustness to occlusion. For feature extraction, we show that if sparsity in the recognition problem is properly harnessed, the choice of features is no longer critical. What is critical, however, is whether the number of features is sufficiently large and whether the sparse representation is correctly computed. Unconventional features such as downsampled images and random projections perform just as well as conventional features such as eigenfaces and Laplacianfaces, as long as the dimension of the feature space surpasses certain threshold, predicted by the theory of sparse representation. This framework can handle errors due to occlusion and corruption uniformly by exploiting the fact that these errors are often sparse with respect to the standard (pixel) basis. The theory of sparse representation helps predict how much occlusion the recognition algorithm can handle and how to choose the training images to maximize robustness to occlusion. We conduct extensive experiments on publicly available databases to verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm and corroborate the above claims.

9,658 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reviews the major deep learning concepts pertinent to medical image analysis and summarizes over 300 contributions to the field, most of which appeared in the last year, to survey the use of deep learning for image classification, object detection, segmentation, registration, and other tasks.
Abstract: Deep learning algorithms, in particular convolutional networks, have rapidly become a methodology of choice for analyzing medical images. This paper reviews the major deep learning concepts pertinent to medical image analysis and summarizes over 300 contributions to the field, most of which appeared in the last year. We survey the use of deep learning for image classification, object detection, segmentation, registration, and other tasks. Concise overviews are provided of studies per application area: neuro, retinal, pulmonary, digital pathology, breast, cardiac, abdominal, musculoskeletal. We end with a summary of the current state-of-the-art, a critical discussion of open challenges and directions for future research.

8,730 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
13 Mar 2020-Science
TL;DR: The authors show that this protein binds at least 10 times more tightly than the corresponding spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–CoV to their common host cell receptor, and test several published SARS-CoV RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies found that they do not have appreciable binding to 2019-nCoV S, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity may be limited between the two RBDs.
Abstract: The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) represents a pandemic threat that has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. The CoV spike (S) glycoprotein is a key target for vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostics. To facilitate medical countermeasure development, we determined a 3.5-angstrom-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 2019-nCoV S trimer in the prefusion conformation. The predominant state of the trimer has one of the three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) rotated up in a receptor-accessible conformation. We also provide biophysical and structural evidence that the 2019-nCoV S protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with higher affinity than does severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV S. Additionally, we tested several published SARS-CoV RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies and found that they do not have appreciable binding to 2019-nCoV S, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity may be limited between the two RBDs. The structure of 2019-nCoV S should enable the rapid development and evaluation of medical countermeasures to address the ongoing public health crisis.

7,324 citations