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David M. Bird

Bio: David M. Bird is an academic researcher from McGill University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Kestrel & Population. The author has an hindex of 35, co-authored 136 publications receiving 3772 citations.
Topics: Kestrel, Population, Nest, Sperm, Predation


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
09 Oct 2015
TL;DR: Since the turn of the century, emerging unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) have found increasingly diverse applications in wildlife science as convenient, very high-resolution remote sensing devices as discussed by the authors...
Abstract: Since the turn of the century, emerging unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) have found increasingly diverse applications in wildlife science as convenient, very high-resolution remote sensing devices. ...

195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the exposure of kestrels to environmentally relevant levels of DE-71 modifies the quality of the pair-bond, affects the reproductive behavior of both sexes, and occurs when birds are exposed for a short period as adults.

124 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The influence of sibling egg size ratios on post-natal size relationships persisted through the nesting period, providing parents with a tool to manipulate size-related phenomena in their offspring.
Abstract: 1. American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings are sexually dimorphic, with daughters larger than sons. The larger daughters have an advantage during sibling competition for food in excess of their higher per capita food requirements, and we predicted that parents would reduce this competitive disparity by differentially enhancing the growth of sons, specifically by laying them in larger eggs. 2. In a captive breeding population, eggs producing sons were significantly larger than eggs producing daughters; laying order effects were controlled. 3. The influence of sibling egg size ratios on post-natal size relationships persisted through the nesting period, providing parents with a tool to manipulate size-related phenomena in their offspring.

117 citations

Book
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: Raptors in urban landscapes raptors and artificial nest structures raptors in cultivated landscapes raptor at large and Raptors in cultivated landscape raptors at large.
Abstract: Raptors in urban landscapes raptors and artificial nest structures raptors in cultivated landscapes raptors at large.

117 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Apr 2015-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: The capacity of a small UAS to census a large coastal Common tern (Sterna hirundo) colony of which ground surveys are particularly disruptive and time-consuming is evaluated, finding no evidence of sustained disturbance to the colony by the UAS.
Abstract: Small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be useful for conducting high-precision, low-disturbance waterbird surveys, but limited data exist on their effectiveness. We evaluated the capacity of a small UAS to census a large (>6,000 nests) coastal Common tern (Sterna hirundo) colony of which ground surveys are particularly disruptive and time-consuming. We compared aerial photographic tern counts to ground nest counts in 45 plots (5-m radius) throughout the colony at three intervals over a nine-day period in order to identify sources of variation and establish a coefficient to estimate nest numbers from UAS surveys. We also compared a full colony ground count to full counts from two UAS surveys conducted the following day. Finally, we compared colony disturbance levels over the course of UAS flights to matched control periods. Linear regressions between aerial and ground counts in plots had very strong correlations in all three comparison periods (R2 = 0.972–0.989, P < 0.001) and regression coefficients ranged from 0.928–0.977 terns/nest. Full colony aerial counts were 93.6% and 94.0%, respectively, of the ground count. Varying visibility of terns with ground cover, weather conditions and image quality, and changing nest attendance rates throughout incubation were likely sources of variation in aerial detection rates. Optimally timed UAS surveys of Common tern colonies following our method should yield population estimates in the 93–96% range of ground counts. Although the terns were initially disturbed by the UAS flying overhead, they rapidly habituated to it. Overall, we found no evidence of sustained disturbance to the colony by the UAS. We encourage colonial waterbird researchers and managers to consider taking advantage of this burgeoning technology.

114 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that when nonmonotonic dose-response curves occur, the effects of low doses cannot be predicted by the effects observed at high doses, and fundamental changes in chemical testing and safety determination are needed to protect human health.
Abstract: For decades, studies of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have challenged traditional concepts in toxicology, in particular the dogma of “the dose makes the poison,” because EDCs can have effects at low doses that are not predicted by effects at higher doses. Here, we review two major concepts in EDC studies: low dose and nonmonotonicity. Low-dose effects were defined by the National Toxicology Program as those that occur in the range of human exposures or effects observed at doses below those used for traditional toxicological studies. We review the mechanistic data for low-dose effects and use a weight-of-evidence approach to analyze five examples from the EDC literature. Additionally, we explore nonmonotonic dose-response curves, defined as a nonlinear relationship between dose and effect where the slope of the curve changes sign somewhere within the range of doses examined. We provide a detailed discussion of the mechanisms responsible for generating these phenomena, plus hundreds of examples from...

2,475 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compile the most recent information on urban impacts on avian populations and communities and identify the processes that underlie the patterns of population and community level responses, but several areas of have been identified as being important.

1,397 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1941-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, Gray has written a book on diseases of poultry, Diseases of Poultry Their Aetiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Control; with a Section on the Normal Anatomy and Physiology of the Fowl.
Abstract: VERY few veterinary surgeons have thought fit to write a book on diseases of poultry. Mr. Ernest Gray has done justice to the subject and is to be congratulated on his effort. A book of this size, written by one with specialized knowledge, will add to the value of any library or private bookshelf. Diseases of Poultry Their Aetiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Control; with a Section on the Normal Anatomy and Physiology of the Fowl. By Ernest Gray. (Lockwood's Agricultural and Horticultural Handbooks.) Pp. x + 198 + 16 plates. (London: Crosby Lockwood and Son, Ltd., 1940.) 9s. 6d. net.

1,282 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices are outlined and how these systems could be made more sustainable are discussed.
Abstract: The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat—instead of feeding it directly to humans—involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. Key words: diet, environment, health, industrial agriculture, sustainability, sustainable agriculture. Environ Health Perspect 110:445‐456 (2002). [Online 20 March 2002] http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2002/110p445-456horrigan/abstract.html

1,057 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review examines the growing evidence that GC concentrations in free-living reptiles, amphibians, and birds, but not mammals, are commonly elevated during the breeding season and test three hypotheses with different focuses on GC's energetic or behavioral effects, as well as onGC's role in preparing the animal for subsequent stressors.

1,042 citations