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David P. Norton

Bio: David P. Norton is an academic researcher from University of Florida. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Thin film & Pulsed laser deposition. The author has an hindex of 92, co-authored 549 publication(s) receiving 66007 citation(s). Previous affiliations of David P. Norton include Harvard University & Louisiana State University.
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17 Apr 2015-
TL;DR: A "balanced scorecard" is developed, a new performance measurement system that gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the business and complements those financial measures with three sets of operational measures having to do with customer satisfaction, internal processes, and the organization's ability to learn and improve.
Abstract: Frustrated by the inadequacies of traditional performance measurement systems, some managers have abandoned financial measures like return on equity and earnings per share. "Make operational improvements and the numbers will follow," the argument goes. But managers do not want to choose between financial and operational measures. Executives want a balanced presentation of measures that allow them to view the company from several perspectives simultaneously. During a year-long research project with 12 companies at the leading edge of performance measurement, the authors developed a "balanced scorecard," a new performance measurement system that gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the business. The balanced scorecard includes financial measures that tell the results of actions already taken. And it complements those financial measures with three sets of operational measures having to do with customer satisfaction, internal processes, and the organization's ability to learn and improve--the activities that drive future financial performance. Managers can create a balanced scorecard by translating their company's strategy and mission statements into specific goals and measures. To create the part of the scorecard that focuses on the customer perspective, for example, executives at Electronic Circuits Inc. established general goals for customer performance: get standard products to market sooner, improve customers' time-to-market, become customers' supplier of choice through partnerships, and develop innovative products tailored to customer needs. Managers translated these elements of strategy into four specific goals and identified a measure for each.

12,625 citations

Journal Article
Abstract: for competition that is based on information, their ability to exploit intangible assets has become far more decisive than their ability to invest in and manage physical assets. Several years ago, in recognition of this change, we introduced a concept we called the balanced scorecard. The balanced scorecard supplemented traditional fi nancial measures with criteria that measured performance from three additional perspectives – those of customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth. (See the exhibit “Translating Vision and Strategy: Four Perspectives.”) It therefore enabled companies to track fi nancial results while simultaneously monitoring progress in building the capabilities and acquiring the intangible assets they would need for future growth. The scorecard wasn’t Editor’s Note: In 1992, Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton’s concept of the balanced scorecard revolutionized conventional thinking about performance metrics. By going beyond traditional measures of fi nancial performance, the concept has given a generation of managers a better understanding of how their companies are really doing. These nonfi nancial metrics are so valuable mainly because they predict future fi nancial performance rather than simply report what’s already happened. This article, fi rst published in 1996, describes how the balanced scorecard can help senior managers systematically link current actions with tomorrow’s goals, focusing on that place where, in the words of the authors, “the rubber meets the sky.” Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System

5,140 citations

Book ChapterDOI
Abstract: In this article Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton report on the Balance Scorecard. Before the Balanced Scorecard companies have used various measurement systems that have made incremental improvements and concentrated mostly on the company's financials. The Balanced Scorecard shows you four different perspectives in which to choose measures that can redefine a company's processes measurement system so short term and long term objectives are in balance with each other. When using the Balanced Scorecard a company is no longer needs to worry about small incremental improvements, but a new processes measurement system that will allow a company to get where it wants to go.

2,436 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1998-Technometrics
Abstract: Los autores Robert S. Kaplan y David P. Norton, proponen a los directivos empresariales de cualquier tipo de organización, la utilización de esta teoría de vanguardia, ya comprobada a nivel mundial, que denominan “The Balanced Scorecard” para lograr que la organización en cuestión pueda motivar a su personal y alcanzar los objetivos de la misión empresarial, no siendo solamente un sistema de medición que canaliza aspectos sinergéticos, habilidades gerenciales y conocimiento puntual dirigido a alcanzar las metas fijadas a largo plazo.

2,375 citations

01 Sep 2000-
Abstract: Preface 1 Creating the Strategy-Focused Organization 2 How Mobil Became a Strategy-Focused Organization Part One: Translating the Strategy to Operational Terms 3 Building Strategy Maps 4 Building Strategy Maps in Private Sector Companies 5 Strategy Scorecards in Nonprofit, Government, and Health Care Organizations Part Two: Aligning the Organization to Create Synergies 6 Creating Business Unit Synergy 7 Creating Synergy through Shared Services Part Three: Making Strategy Everyone's Everyday Job 8 Creating Strategic Awareness 9 Defining Personal and Team Objectives 10 The Balanced Paycheck Part Four: Making Strategy a Continuous Process 11 Planning and Budgeting 12 Feedback and Learning Part Five: Mobilizing Change through Executive Leadership 13 Leadership and Mobilization 14 Avoiding the Pitfalls Frequently Asked Questions Index About the Authors

2,199 citations

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The semiconductor ZnO has gained substantial interest in the research community in part because of its large exciton binding energy (60meV) which could lead to lasing action based on exciton recombination even above room temperature. Even though research focusing on ZnO goes back many decades, the renewed interest is fueled by availability of high-quality substrates and reports of p-type conduction and ferromagnetic behavior when doped with transitions metals, both of which remain controversial. It is this renewed interest in ZnO which forms the basis of this review. As mentioned already, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field, with studies of its lattice parameter dating back to 1935 by Bunn [Proc. Phys. Soc. London 47, 836 (1935)], studies of its vibrational properties with Raman scattering in 1966 by Damen et al. [Phys. Rev. 142, 570 (1966)], detailed optical studies in 1954 by Mollwo [Z. Angew. Phys. 6, 257 (1954)], and its growth by chemical-vapor transport in 1970 by Galli and Coker [Appl. Phys. ...

9,486 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.

8,325 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The rapid growth of research on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has resulted in some conceptual confusion about the nature of the construct, and made it difficult for all but the most avid readers to keep up with developments in this domain. This paper critically examines the literature on organizational citizenship behavior and other, related constructs. More specifically, it: (a) explores the conceptual similarities and differences between the various forms of “citizenship” behavior constructs identified in the literature; (b) summarizes the empirical findings of both the antecedents and consequences of OCBs; and (c) identifies several interesting directions for future research.

4,862 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We test the relationship between shareholder value, stakeholder management, and social issue participation. Building better relations with primary stakeholders like employees, customers, suppliers, and communities could lead to increased shareholder wealth by helping firms develop intangible, valuable assets which can be sources of competitive advantage. On the other hand, using corporate resources for social issues not related to primary stakeholders may not create value for shareholders. We test these propositions with data from S&P 500 firms and find evidence that stakeholder management leads to improved shareholder value, while social issue participation is negatively associated with shareholder value. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

3,165 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Following a comprehensive review of the literature, proposes a research agenda that focuses on the process of performance measurement system design, rather than the detail of specific measures.
Abstract: The importance of performance measurement has long been recognized by academics and practitioners from a variety of functional disciplines. Seeks to bring together this diverse body of knowledge into a coherent whole. To ensure that the key issues are identified, focuses on the process of performance measurement system design, rather than the detail of specific measures. Following a comprehensive review of the literature, proposes a research agenda.

3,154 citations

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Author's H-index: 92

No. of papers from the Author in previous years

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Author's top 5 most impactful journals

Applied Physics Letters

91 papers, 7.8K citations

MRS Proceedings

31 papers, 72 citations

Journal of Applied Physics

23 papers, 2.1K citations

Applied Surface Science

22 papers, 457 citations