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David Pingree

Other affiliations: University of Chicago
Bio: David Pingree is an academic researcher from Brown University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Astrology & Sanskrit. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 109 publications receiving 1533 citations. Previous affiliations of David Pingree include University of Chicago.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1963-Isis
TL;DR: The influence of foreign ideas on Indian gayakas is surveyed so as to make clear the creative use they made of their borrowings in devising the yuga-system of astronomy, and the character of Sasanian astronomy and astrology is examined, pointing out their almost complete lack of originality.
Abstract: O NLY in recent years have the interrelationships of Babylonian, Greek, and Indian astronomy and astrology become a subject which can be studied meaningfully. This development is due to several factors: our greatly increased understanding of cuneiform material made possible by the scholarship of Professor O. Neugebauer; 1 the discovery of Babylonian parameters and techniques not only in the standard Greek astronomical texts,2 but in papyri and astrological treatises as well; and the finding of Mesopotamian material in Sanskrit works and in the traditions of South India. Unfortunately, a lack of familiarity with the Sanskrit sources and a failure to consider the transmission of scientific ideas in the context of a broad

126 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The influence of foreign ideas on Indian gayakas is discussed in this article, where the authors make clear the creative use they made of their borrowings in devising the yuga-system of astronomy, pointing out their almost complete lack of originality.
Abstract: (ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)ONLY in recent years have the interrelationships of Babylonian, Greek, and Indian astronomy and astrology become a subject which can be studied meaningfully. This development is due to several factors: our greatly increased understanding of cuneiform material made possible by the scholarship of Professor O. Neugebauer; 1 the discovery of Babylonian parameters and techniques not only in the standard Greek astronomical texts,2 but in papyri and astrological treatises as well; and the finding of Mesopotamian material in Sanskrit works and in the traditions of South India. Unfortunately, a lack of familiarity with the Sanskrit sources and a failure to consider the transmission of scientific ideas in the context of a broad historical perspective have recently led one scholar to the erroneous conclusion that Sasanian Iran played a crucial role in the introduction of Greek and Babylonian astronomy and astrology to India and in the development of Indian planetary theory.4 It is my purpose in this paper to survey briefly the influence of foreign ideas on Indian gayakas so as to make clear the creative use they made of their borrowings in devising the yuga-system of astronomy; and then to examine the character of Sasanian astronomy and astrology, pointing out their almost complete lack of originality.The earliest Indian texts which are known - the Vedas, the Brâhmaijas, and the Upanicads - are seldom concerned with any but the most obvious of astronomical phenomena; and when they are so concerned, they speak with an obscurity of language and thought that renders impossible an adequate exposition of the notions regarding celestial matters to which their authors subscribed. One may point to the statement that the year consists of 360 days as a possible trace of Babylonian influence in the Kgveda,4 but there is little else which lends itself to a similar interpretation. It has often been proposed, of course, that the list of the twenty-eight naksatras which is given for the first time at the beginning of the last millennium before Christ in the Atharvaveda and in various Brâhmanas is borrowed from Mesopotamia.8 But no cuneiform tablet yet deciphered presents a parallel; the hypothesis cannot be accepted in the total absence of corroborative evidence.However, the naksatras are useful in the tracing of Indian influence on other cultures. The oldest lists0 associate each constellation with a presiding deity who is to be suitably propitiated at the appointed times. It became important to perform certain sacrifices only under the benign influence of particularly auspicious naksatras.7 The roster of activities for which each was considered auspicious or not was rapidly expanded,6 and, in particular, the naksatras came to be closely connected with the twelve or sixteen samskâras or purificatory rites. Thereby they gave rise to the most substantial part of muhurtasâstra, or Indian catarrhic astrology,® traces of which are to be found in Arabic, Byzantine, and medieval Latin texts.10 The Indians also combined the twenty-eight naksatras with the Babylonian arts of brontology and seismology 11 in a form which, for some unknown reason, became immensely popular among the followers of Buddha.'2 Their works spread these superstitions throughout Central Asia and the Far East.18The relative seclusion from the West which the Aryans had enjoyed in northern India for centuries alter their invasions was broken shortly before 51.3 b. c., when Darius the Great conquered the Indus Valley. In the ensuing six centuries, save for a century and a half of security under the Mauryan emperors, North India was subjected to the successive incursions of the Greeks, the eakas, the Pah lavas, and the Kuyânas. An important aspect of this turbulent period was the opportunity it afforded of contact between the intellectuals of the West and India. This opportunity was not missed. …

110 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1992-Isis
Abstract: THE GENESIS OF THIS PAPER lies in a conversation that I had with A. I. Sabra of Harvard on the perennial problem of the definition of science appropriate to a historian of science; its corruption (including the deliberately extreme mode of its expression) is entirely a result of my own labors. For the piece represents the attitudes toward the subject that I have developed over some three and a half decades of studying the history of the "exact" sciences (as 1 will persist in calling them despite the lack of exactitude in some of them), as practiced in ancient Mesopotamia, in ancient and medieval Greece, India, and the Latin-speaking West, and in medieval Islam. It is this experience, then, and the desire to reconstruct a complex history as accurately as possible, that motivates me-these two, and the wish to provide an apologia for my claim to be a historian of science rather than of quackery. For the sciences I study are those related to the stars, and they include not only various astronomies and the different mathematical theories they employ, but also astral omens, astrology, magic, medicine, and law (dharmaaastra). All of these subjects, I would argue, were or are sciences within the contexts of the cultures in which they once flourished or now are practiced. As such they deserve to be studied by historians of science with as serious and thorough a purpose as are the topics that we usually find discussed in history of science classrooms or in the pages of Isis. This means that their intellectual content must be probed deeply, and not simply dismissed as rubbish or interpreted in the light of modern historical mythology; and that the intellectual content must be related to the culture that produced and nourished each, and to the social context within which each arose and developed.In stating these opinions I may appear to have set myself up as a relativist, but I would deny the applicability of that epithet to my position since my interest lies not in judging the truth or falsehood of these or any other sciences, nor in discovering in them some part that might be useful or relevant to the present world, but simply in understanding how, why, where, and when they worked as functioning systems of thought and interacted with each other and with other systems of thought.It is with these considerations in mind, then, that I have embraced the word employed in the title of this article, "Hellenophilia," as it is a most convenient description of a set of attitudes that I perceive to be of increasing prevalence within the profession of the history of science, and which I believe to be thoroughly pernicious. I like "Hellenophilia" as a word because it brings to mind such other terms as "necrophilia," a barbaric excess that erupts as a disease from the passionate rather than from the rational soul; whereas the true love of the Greeks, Philhellenism, though also an attribute of barbarians such as are we-the epithet "Philhellene" was proudly borne by ancient Parthians, Semites, and Romans-arises preeminently from well-deserved admiration. A Philhellene is one who shares in what used to be, when children in the West still were taught the classics, a virtually universal awe of Greek literature, art, philosophy, and science; a Hellenophile suffers from a form of madness that blinds him or her to historical truth and creates in the imagination the idea that one of several false propositions is true. The first of these is that the Greeks invented science; the second is that they discovered a way to truth, the scientific method, that we are now successfully following; the third is that the only real sciences are those that began in Greece; and the fourth (and last?) is that the true definition of science is just that which scientists happen to be doing now, following a method or methods adumbrated by the Greeks, but never fully understood or utilized by them.Hellenophiles, it might be observed, are overwhelmingly Westerners, displaying the cultural myopia common in all cultures of the world but, as well, the arrogance that characterized the medieval Christian's recognition of his own infallibility and that has now been inherited by our modem priests of science. …

73 citations

Book
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: The first comprehensive and up-to-date account of the origins of the astral sciences in the Ancient Near East is given in this article, providing a comprehensive reference work on all of the Mesopotamian cuneiform documents concerning astronomy.
Abstract: The first comprehensive and up-to-date account of the origins of the astral sciences in the Ancient Near East, offering a comprehensive reference work on all of the Mesopotamian cuneiform documents concerning astronomy.

68 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
David Pingree1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present evidence in support of an hypothesis concerning the dependence of the mathematical astronomy of the Jyotifavedâftga on Mesopotamian science of the Achaemenid period.
Abstract: (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)In this paper I intend to advance and offer evidence in support of an hypothesis concerning the dependence of the mathematical astronomy of the Jyotifavedâftga on Mesopotamian science of the Achaemenid period.1 I believe that the evidence in support of the theory that some elements of early Indian astronomy are derived from Mesopotamia is overwhelming, and that the evidence for the rest of my hypothetical reconstruction is persuasive. But I must enter a cautionary note with regard to that portion which relates to the Indian intercalation-cycle: the evidence in both the cuneiform and the Sanskrit sources is so fragmentary that no hypothetical reconstruction of the development or of the interrelation of their respective intercalation-cycles is more than a reasonable guess. I hope that the reader will find my guess more plausible than those of my predecessors.Though the Vedas and Brahmanas provide us with some crude elements of observational astronomy, such as the standard list of 27 or 28 nakcatras or constellations associated with the Moon's course through the sky, and some rough parameters, such as the twelve months and 360 nychthemera of a year, mathematical astronomy begins in India with a group of related texts which I intend to explain in this paper. The basic text of this group is the Jyotifavedâftga * one of the six angas or "limbs" studied by Vedic priests; its purpose was to provide them with a means of computing the times for which the performances of sacrifices are prescribed, primarily new and full moons. This brief work has come down to us in two recensions: a shorter one of 36 verses associated with the Rgveda, and a longer one of 43 verses associated with the Yajurveda, which latter incorporates 29 verses of the Rk-recension. That Rk-recension was composed by one Lagadha, who is otherwise unknown, or, according to another interpretation, by Suci on the basis of Lagadha's teachings; the Yajur-recension names no author, but has the dubious benefit of a bhâcya or commentary by one Somakara. It is the Yajur-recension that has generally been used by modem scholars also, as it, in two of its additional verses, attempts to adjust the older system of the Rk-recension to the familiar terms of medieval Indian astronomy. In this paper the shorter and surely older Rk-recension will be used.We are justified in asserting the originality of the Rk-recension not only by its shortness, but also by its parallelism to other pre-medieval Sanskrit texts. In particular we must discuss here the following seven works in addition to the two recensions of the Jyotifavedâftga:1. The Arthasâstra of Kautilya3 is an ancient work on political science. Many scholars have identified the author with the minister of Candragupta Maurya, who established the Mauryan Empire in northern India shortly before 300 b.c., though it seems fairly secure that our recension of Book Two of the Arthaiâstra does not antedate the second century a.d.4 The twentieth chapter of the second book of the Arthasâstra prescribes the duties of the Mânâdhyakca or Super- intendant of Measurements, among which is included the duty of supervising the measurements of time. These time-measurements are closely related to those of the Jyotisavedanga.2. The Sardulakarnavadana5 is now the thirty-third story in a Buddhist collection of tales about Bodhisattvas, the Divyavadana. Originally it was an anticaste tract in which a king of the Matangas (that is, Candâlas), Trisafiku, asks a Brâhmana, Puckarasârin, to give his daughter, Prakfti, to the outcaste's son, aardulakarna. Upon the Brahmana's refusal of this unorthodox request, Trisafiku proves his status as a Brâhmana by displaying his knowledge of astral divination and astronomy. Our present Sanskrit version is full of interpolations, both in prose and in poetry; but the history of the basic core of the text can be traced back to translations into Chinese by the Parthian prince An Shih-kao, who settled in Loyang in a. …

53 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Thematiche [38].
Abstract: accademiche [38]. Ada [45]. Adrian [45]. African [56]. Age [39, 49, 61]. Al [23]. Al-Rawi [23]. Aldous [68]. Alex [15]. Allure [46]. America [60, 66]. American [49, 69, 61, 52]. ancienne [25]. Andreas [28]. Angela [42]. Animals [16]. Ann [26]. Anna [19, 47]. Annotated [46]. Annotations [28]. Anti [37]. Anti-Copernican [37]. Antibiotic [64]. Anxiety [51]. Apocalyptic [61]. Archaeology [26]. Ark [36]. Artisan [32]. Asylum [48]. Atri [54]. Audra [65]. Australia [41]. Authorship [15]. Axelle [29].

978 citations

01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Aborigenes [78]. according [155]. Action [39, 72]. actuelle [87]. actuelles [107, 84]. Acvaghosa [8]. Aegypten [30]. Aether [126]. Agnes [42]. al [11]. Albert [45]. alcune [51]. Algerien [30], alla [51], allo [28]. Alphonse [15]. Altertum [94]. Americaaine [75]. Amici [10]. among [78], analyse [96]. analytique [
Abstract: Aborigenes [78]. according [155]. Action [39, 72]. actuelle [87]. actuelles [107, 84]. Acvaghosa [8]. Aegypten [30]. Aether [126]. Agnes [42]. al [11]. Albert [45]. alcune [51]. Algerien [30]. alla [51]. allo [28]. Alphonse [15]. Altertum [94]. americaine [75]. Amici [10]. among [78]. analyse [96]. analytique [101, 49, 81, 17]. Ananda [153, 154]. Anaxagora [55]. ancient [55, 56]. année [16]. Annotated [17]. Annuaire [47]. ans [74]. antike [56]. antiquite [62, 7]. Antiquities [156]. Anton [64]. Antonio [10]. août [167]. Arabic [52]. Arabische [30]. arabischen [52]. Arber [42, 42]. Ardigo [70]. Aristoteles [29, 112]. Aristotle [61]. Armin [100, 136, 166]. art [107, 87]. Arts [154]. Ascanio [53]. Astronomical [161]. ateliers [92]. atomism [56]. Atomistik [56]. augmenter [25, 57]. August [112, 69]. Auguste [162, 37].

865 citations

Book
19 Jan 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, the history of truth and error of history is discussed, focusing on the error of imagining the occult, and the truth of history: entering the Academy Conclusions: restoring memory.
Abstract: Introduction: hic sunt dracones 1. The history of truth: recovering ancient wisdom 2. The history of error: exorcizing Paganism 3. The error of history: imagining the Occult 4. The truth of history: entering the Academy Conclusions: restoring memory.

178 citations

Book
Jürgen Renn1
01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: Second-order knowledge as mentioned in this paper is the origin of self-organizing, self-promoting qualities of knowledge, and it is the reflexivity of knowledge that accounts for its selforganizing and self-defining qualities.
Abstract: object but always involves knowledge about this knowledge as well, that is, meta or second-order knowledge. This reflexivity of knowledge also accounts for its self-organizing, self-promoting qualities. Second-order knowledge is the origin 22

160 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Apr 1983
TL;DR: The rise of the Sasanian dynasty can be understood as the successful struggle of a minor ruler of Persis not only against his Parthian overlord, but also against a multitude of neighbouring rulers.
Abstract: The rise of the Sasanian dynasty can be understood as the successful struggle of a minor ruler of Persis not only against his Parthian overlord, but also against a multitude of neighbouring rulers. The main adversary of the Persians was the Roman empire, and the ambitions of the first Sasanian ruler were soon countered by Rome. It was during the reign of Yazdgard that the Christians of the Sasanian empire held a council in the city of Seleucia in the year 410. Shortly after Bahrāam accession in 421 the persecution of Christians in the Sasanian empire was resumed, probably at the instigation of Zoroastrian priests. The Sasanians inherited from the Parthians a legacy of over two centuries of conflict with the western power. With a Sasanian belief in the destiny of Iran to rule over the territories once held by the Achaemenians, it was inevitable that wars between the two great powers would continue.

159 citations