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Author

David Reich

Bio: David Reich is an academic researcher from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Population & Ancient DNA. The author has an hindex of 137, co-authored 644 publication(s) receiving 91397 citation(s). Previous affiliations of David Reich include Mount Sinai St. Luke's and Mount Sinai Roosevelt & Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Alkes L. Price1, Alkes L. Price2, Nick Patterson1, Robert M. Plenge3  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: This work describes a method that enables explicit detection and correction of population stratification on a genome-wide scale and uses principal components analysis to explicitly model ancestry differences between cases and controls.
Abstract: Population stratification—allele frequency differences between cases and controls due to systematic ancestry differences—can cause spurious associations in disease studies. We describe a method that enables explicit detection and correction of population stratification on a genome-wide scale. Our method uses principal components analysis to explicitly model ancestry differences between cases and controls. The resulting correction is specific to a candidate marker’s variation in frequency across ancestral populations, minimizing spurious associations while maximizing power to detect true associations. Our simple, efficient approach can easily be applied to disease studies with hundreds of thousands of markers. Population stratification—allele frequency differences between cases and controls due to systematic ancestry differences—can cause spurious associations in disease studies 1‐8 . Because the effects of stratification vary in proportion to the number of samples 9 , stratification will be an increasing problem in the large-scale association studies of the future, which will analyze thousands of samples in an effort to detect common genetic variants of weak effect. The two prevailing methods for dealing with stratification are genomic control and structured association 9‐14 . Although genomic control and structured association have proven useful in a variety of contexts, they have limitations. Genomic control corrects for stratification by adjusting association statistics at each marker by a uniform overall inflation factor. However, some markers differ in their allele frequencies across ancestral populations more than others. Thus, the uniform adjustment applied by genomic control may be insufficient at markers having unusually strong differentiation across ancestral populations and may be superfluous at markers devoid of such differentiation, leading to a loss in power. Structured association uses a program such as STRUCTURE 15 to assign the samples to discrete subpopulation clusters and then aggregates evidence of association within each cluster. If fractional membership in more than one cluster is allowed, the method cannot currently be applied to genome-wide association studies because of its intensive computational cost on large data sets. Furthermore, assignments of individuals to clusters are highly sensitive to the number of clusters, which is not well defined 14,16 .

8,407 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Nick Patterson1, Alkes L. Price1, Alkes L. Price2, David Reich2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: An approach to studying population structure (principal components analysis) is discussed that was first applied to genetic data by Cavalli-Sforza and colleagues, and results from modern statistics are used to develop formal significance tests for population differentiation.
Abstract: Current methods for inferring population structure from genetic data do not provide formal significance tests for population differentiation. We discuss an approach to studying population structure (principal components analysis) that was first applied to genetic data by Cavalli-Sforza and colleagues. We place the method on a solid statistical footing, using results from modern statistics to develop formal significance tests. We also uncover a general “phase change” phenomenon about the ability to detect structure in genetic data, which emerges from the statistical theory we use, and has an important implication for the ability to discover structure in genetic data: for a fixed but large dataset size, divergence between two populations (as measured, for example, by a statistic like FST) below a threshold is essentially undetectable, but a little above threshold, detection will be easy. This means that we can predict the dataset size needed to detect structure.

3,847 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
07 May 2010-Science
TL;DR: The genomic data suggest that Neandertals mixed with modern human ancestors some 120,000 years ago, leaving traces of Ne andertal DNA in contemporary humans, suggesting that gene flow from Neand Bertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.
Abstract: Neandertals, the closest evolutionary relatives of present-day humans, lived in large parts of Europe and western Asia before disappearing 30,000 years ago. We present a draft sequence of the Neandertal genome composed of more than 4 billion nucleotides from three individuals. Comparisons of the Neandertal genome to the genomes of five present-day humans from different parts of the world identify a number of genomic regions that may have been affected by positive selection in ancestral modern humans, including genes involved in metabolism and in cognitive and skeletal development. We show that Neandertals shared more genetic variants with present-day humans in Eurasia than with present-day humans in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that gene flow from Neandertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.

3,126 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Feb 2001-Nature
TL;DR: This high-density SNP map provides a public resource for defining haplotype variation across the genome, and should help to identify biomedically important genes for diagnosis and therapy.
Abstract: We describe a map of 1.42 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed throughout the human genome, providing an average density on available sequence of one SNP every 1.9 kilobases. These SNPs were primarily discovered by two projects: The SNP Consortium and the analysis of clone overlaps by the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. The map integrates all publicly available SNPs with described genes and other genomic features. We estimate that 60,000 SNPs fall within exon (coding and untranslated regions), and 85% of exons are within 5 kb of the nearest SNP. Nucleotide diversity varies greatly across the genome, in a manner broadly consistent with a standard population genetic model of human history. This high-density SNP map provides a public resource for defining haplotype variation across the genome, and should help to identify biomedically important genes for diagnosis and therapy.

2,817 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2005-Nature
TL;DR: It is found that the patterns of evolution in human and chimpanzee protein-coding genes are highly correlated and dominated by the fixation of neutral and slightly deleterious alleles.
Abstract: Here we present a draft genome sequence of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Through comparison with the human genome, we have generated a largely complete catalogue of the genetic differenc ...

2,154 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
Ahmedin Jemal1, Freddie Bray2, Jacques Ferlay2, Elizabeth Ward1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination, and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake.
Abstract: The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally.

51,138 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Shaun Purcell1, Shaun Purcell2, Benjamin M. Neale2, Benjamin M. Neale3  +14 moreInstitutions (4)
TL;DR: This work introduces PLINK, an open-source C/C++ WGAS tool set, and describes the five main domains of function: data management, summary statistics, population stratification, association analysis, and identity-by-descent estimation, which focuses on the estimation and use of identity- by-state and identity/descent information in the context of population-based whole-genome studies.
Abstract: Whole-genome association studies (WGAS) bring new computational, as well as analytic, challenges to researchers. Many existing genetic-analysis tools are not designed to handle such large data sets in a convenient manner and do not necessarily exploit the new opportunities that whole-genome data bring. To address these issues, we developed PLINK, an open-source C/C++ WGAS tool set. With PLINK, large data sets comprising hundreds of thousands of markers genotyped for thousands of individuals can be rapidly manipulated and analyzed in their entirety. As well as providing tools to make the basic analytic steps computationally efficient, PLINK also supports some novel approaches to whole-genome data that take advantage of whole-genome coverage. We introduce PLINK and describe the five main domains of function: data management, summary statistics, population stratification, association analysis, and identity-by-descent estimation. In particular, we focus on the estimation and use of identity-by-state and identity-by-descent information in the context of population-based whole-genome studies. This information can be used to detect and correct for population stratification and to identify extended chromosomal segments that are shared identical by descent between very distantly related individuals. Analysis of the patterns of segmental sharing has the potential to map disease loci that contain multiple rare variants in a population-based linkage analysis.

22,115 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Eric S. Lander1, Lauren Linton1, Bruce W. Birren1, Chad Nusbaum1  +245 moreInstitutions (29)
15 Feb 2001-Nature
TL;DR: The results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome are reported and an initial analysis is presented, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.
Abstract: The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.

21,023 citations


28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Haploview is a software package that provides computation of linkage disequilibrium statistics and population haplotype patterns from primary genotype data in a visually appealing and interactive interface.
Abstract: Summary: Research over the last few years has revealed significant haplotype structure in the human genome. The characterization of these patterns, particularly in the context of medical genetic association studies, is becoming a routine research activity. Haploview is a software package that provides computation of linkage disequilibrium statistics and population haplotype patterns from primary genotype data in a visually appealing and interactive interface. Availability: http://www.broad.mit.edu/mpg/haploview/ Contact: jcbarret@broad.mit.edu

13,185 citations


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Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 137

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
202133
202054
201933
201832
201738
201623