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Debashis Das

Bio: Debashis Das is an academic researcher from Kalyani Government Engineering College. The author has contributed to research in topics: Computer science & Pixel. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 20 publications receiving 195 citations. Previous affiliations of Debashis Das include Information Technology Institute & Techno India University.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
31 Jul 2012
TL;DR: Proposed pixel value differencing (PVD) method for secret data embedding in each of the component of a pixel in a color image provides better visual quality of stego-image compared to the PVD method.
Abstract: In a color image every pixel value composed of red, green and blue component and each of which ranges from 0 to 255 in case of 8-bit representation. In this paper, we have used pixel value differencing (PVD) method for secret data embedding in each of the component of a pixel in a color image. But when we use pixel-value differencing (PVD) method as image steganographic scheme, the pixel values in the stegoimage may exceed the range 0~255. We have eliminated this overflow problem of each component pixel. Furthermore for providing more security, we have used different number of bits in different pixel components. It would be very difficult to trace how many bits are embedded in a pixel of the stego image. From the experiments it is seen that the results obtained in proposed method provides better visual quality of stego-image compared to the PVD method.

80 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 May 2012
TL;DR: An adaptive steganography based on modified pixel-value differencing through management of pixel values within the range of gray scale has been proposed in this paper and results obtained provide with identical payload and visual fidelity of stego-image compared to the pvd method.
Abstract: In a gray scale image the pixel value ranges from 0 to 255. But when we use pixel-value differencing (pvd) method as image steganographic scheme, the pixel values in the stego-image may exceed gray scale range. An adaptive steganography based on modified pixel-value differencing through management of pixel values within the range of gray scale has been proposed in this paper. PVD method is used and check whether the pixel value exceeds the range on embedding. Positions where the pixel exceeds boundary has been marked and a delicate handle is used to keep the value within the range. From the experimental it is seen that the results obtained in proposed method provides with identical payload and visual fidelity of stego-image compared to the pvd method.

31 citations

Posted ContentDOI
TL;DR: An adaptive steganography based on modified pixel-value differencing through management of pixel values within the range of gray scale has been proposed in this paper, where pixel values in the stego-image may exceed gray scale range.
Abstract: In a gray scale image the pixel value ranges from 0 to 255. But when we use pixel-value differencing (pvd) method as image steganographic scheme, the pixel values in the stego-image may exceed gray scale range. An adaptive steganography based on modified pixel-value differencing through management of pixel values within the range of gray scale has been proposed in this paper. PVD method is used and check whether the pixel value exceeds the range on embedding. Positions where the pixel exceeds boundary has been marked and a delicate handle is used to keep the value within the range. From the experimental it is seen that the results obtained in proposed method provides with identical payload and visual fidelity of stego-image compared to the pvd method.

31 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes a vehicle theft detection framework using a decentralized and secure platform to increase the security level of the vehicle and presents 2-Step Authentication (2SA) and unauthorized access detection algorithms.
Abstract: Nowadays, vehicle theft has been increased drastically all over the world. The prevention of vehicle theft is essential to enhance vehicle security. A large number of vehicles have been stolen for the lack of essential foundation and administration of a secure platform. Several existing systems were developed to protect the vehicle from unauthorized access. But, they suffer from various limitations such as data security, the possibility of cybercriminals activities, leakage of personal information, and centralized System. We propose a vehicle theft detection framework using a decentralized and secure platform to increase the security level of the vehicle. Blockchain and smart contracts are used to provide the security of the stored data on the ledger and authenticate a genuine user automatically with greater accuracy. In this paper, we present 2-Step Authentication (2SA) and unauthorized access detection algorithms. The 2SA ensures the secure accessibility of the application by providing the randomly token chosen by the user. The proposed framework can provide vehicle security and owner’s privacy. In this proposed framework, more than one person can drive the vehicle authorizing by the vehicle owner without hampering stored data in the vehicle device.

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explains how Blockchain can be adopted for vehicle security and provides a stepwise implementation of the proposed methodology by providing test bed results and significant critical comparison analysis with other existing systems.
Abstract: In recent years, vehicle theft has been increasing remarkably. It is a stigma to our society. The impacts of vehicle theft have been drastically affecting the social safety and economic condition of the whole world because of unavailability of a proper theft detection mechanism. The few existing vehicle anti-theft systems suffer from major problems such as the leakage of personal information, centralized-based system, proper key management, and data security. In this paper, a decentralized Blockchain-based Vehicle Anti-Theft System (BVATS) is proposed to overcome these problems using smart contracts. Blockchain is a very cutting-edge decentralized technology that is well-equipped with data immutability and a secure information-sharing platform. The smart contract is a digital agreement, which can authenticate an entity automatically and stores information by verifying the predefined condition(s). This paper also explains how Blockchain can be adopted for vehicle security and provides a stepwise implementation of the proposed methodology by providing test bed results and significant critical comparison analysis with other existing systems. Using the BVATS, more than one person can be authorized to drive a vehicle without hampering the vehicle data and maintining security.

17 citations


Cited by
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01 Apr 1997
TL;DR: The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive introduction to applied cryptography with an engineer or computer scientist in mind on the knowledge needed to create practical systems which supports integrity, confidentiality, or authenticity.
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive introduction to applied cryptography with an engineer or computer scientist in mind. The emphasis is on the knowledge needed to create practical systems which supports integrity, confidentiality, or authenticity. Topics covered includes an introduction to the concepts in cryptography, attacks against cryptographic systems, key use and handling, random bit generation, encryption modes, and message authentication codes. Recommendations on algorithms and further reading is given in the end of the paper. This paper should make the reader able to build, understand and evaluate system descriptions and designs based on the cryptographic components described in the paper.

2,188 citations

Book ChapterDOI
04 Oct 2019
TL;DR: Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies arc not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage.
Abstract: Usually, a proof of a theorem contains more knowledge than the mere fact that the theorem is true. For instance, to prove that a graph is Hamiltonian it suffices to exhibit a Hamiltonian tour in it; however, this seems to contain more knowledge than the single bit Hamiltonian/non-Hamiltonian.In this paper a computational complexity theory of the “knowledge” contained in a proof is developed. Zero-knowledge proofs are defined as those proofs that convey no additional knowledge other than the correctness of the proposition in question. Examples of zero-knowledge proof systems are given for the languages of quadratic residuosity and 'quadratic nonresiduosity. These are the first examples of zero-knowledge proofs for languages not known to be efficiently recognizable.

1,962 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The general structure of the steganographic system and classifications of image steganography techniques with its properties in spatial domain are exploited and different performance matrices and steganalysis detection attacks are discussed.
Abstract: This paper presents a literature review of image steganography techniques in the spatial domain for last 5 years. The research community has already done lots of noteworthy research in image steganography. Even though it is interesting to highlight that the existing embedding techniques may not be perfect, the objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive survey and to highlight the pros and cons of existing up-to-date techniques for researchers that are involved in the designing of image steganographic system. In this article, the general structure of the steganographic system and classifications of image steganographic techniques with its properties in spatial domain are exploited. Furthermore, different performance matrices and steganalysis detection attacks are also discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations and good practices drawn from the reviewed techniques.

310 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel image steganography algorithm that combines the strengths of edge detection and XOR coding, to conceal a secret message either in the spatial domain or an Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) based transform domain of the cover image is presented.
Abstract: A method for hiding data in the spatial or IWT domains of images is proposed.Design new edge detection method to estimate same edge intensities for both images.XOR operation is used to embed the message and to improve imperceptibility.Proposed method is robust against textural feature steganalysis. In this paper, we present a novel image steganography algorithm that combines the strengths of edge detection and XOR coding, to conceal a secret message either in the spatial domain or an Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) based transform domain of the cover image. Edge detection enables the identification of sharp edges in the cover image that when embedding in would cause less degradation to the image quality compared to embedding in a pre-specified set of pixels that do not differentiate between sharp and smooth areas. This is motivated by the fact that the human visual system (HVS) is less sensitive to changes in sharp contrast areas compared to uniform areas of the image. The edge detection method presented here is capable of estimating the exact edge intensities for both the cover and stego images (before and after embedding the message), which is essential when extracting the message. The XOR coding, on the other hand, is a simple, yet effective, process that helps in reducing differences between the cover and stego images. In order to embed three secret message bits, the algorithm requires four bits of the cover image, but due to the coding mechanism, no more than two of the four bits will be changed when producing the stego image. The proposed method utilizes the sharpest regions of the image first and then gradually moves to the less sharp regions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has achieved better imperceptibility results than other popular steganography methods. Furthermore, when applying a textural feature steganalytic algorithm to differentiate between cover and stego images produced using various embedding rates, the proposed method maintained a good level of security compared to other steganography methods.

101 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
31 Jul 2012
TL;DR: Proposed pixel value differencing (PVD) method for secret data embedding in each of the component of a pixel in a color image provides better visual quality of stego-image compared to the PVD method.
Abstract: In a color image every pixel value composed of red, green and blue component and each of which ranges from 0 to 255 in case of 8-bit representation. In this paper, we have used pixel value differencing (PVD) method for secret data embedding in each of the component of a pixel in a color image. But when we use pixel-value differencing (PVD) method as image steganographic scheme, the pixel values in the stegoimage may exceed the range 0~255. We have eliminated this overflow problem of each component pixel. Furthermore for providing more security, we have used different number of bits in different pixel components. It would be very difficult to trace how many bits are embedded in a pixel of the stego image. From the experiments it is seen that the results obtained in proposed method provides better visual quality of stego-image compared to the PVD method.

80 citations