Deborah A. Boone
Bio: Deborah A. Boone is an academic researcher from West Virginia University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Agricultural education & Professional development. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 11 publications receiving 1160 citations.
TL;DR: The differences between Lkert-type and Likert scale data are discussed and recommendations for descriptive statistics to be used during the analysis are provided and once a researcher understands the difference, the decision on appropriate statistical procedures will be apparent.
Abstract: This article provides information for Extension professionals on the correct analysis of Likert data. The analyses of Likert-type and Likert scale data require unique data analysis procedures, and as a result, misuses and/or mistakes often occur. This article discusses the differences between Likert-type and Likert scale data and provides recommendations for descriptive statistics to be used during the analysis. Once a researcher understands the difference between Likert-type and Likert scale data, the decision on appropriate statistical procedures will be apparent.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify problems faced by beginning and current teachers of agricultural education and identify 20 problem areas experienced by both teachers and administrators, including administrative support, discipline, class preparations, time management, paperwork, facilities/equipment, community support, self-confidence, developing a course of instruction, budgets/funding, the reputation of the previous teacher, faculty relationships, undergraduate preparation, student motivation, guidance counselors, enrollment numbers, balancing school and home, university relations, special needs students, multi-teacher issues, image of agriculture education, financial rewards, and changes
Abstract: If the agricultural education profession is going to grow and prosper in the 21 st century, it will need an adequate supply of qualified teachers. In 2001, however, the number of qualified potential agricultural education teachers actually seeking employment as teachers fell far short of the net number of replacements needed. Two contributing factors include qualified potential teachers fail to accept employment in the profession and many beginning teachers fail to remain in the teaching profession. One way to improve the number of qualified agricultural education teachers is to reduce the number of teachers who leave the profession early through attrition. The purpose of this study was to identify problems faced by beginning and current teachers of agricultural education. The research revealed 20 problem areas experienced by beginning and current teachers. The categories included administrative support, discipline, class preparations, time management, paperwork, facilities/equipment, community support, self-confidence, developing a course of instruction, budgets/funding, the reputation of the previous teacher, faculty relationships, undergraduate preparation, student motivation, guidance counselors, enrollment numbers, balancing school and home, university relations, special needs students, multi-teacher issues, image of agricultural education, financial rewards, and changes in FFA and agriculture.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conducted an economic analysis to identify the impact of explanatory variables on total farmers' market sales, percentage of household income obtained from farmers' markets, and amount of income derived from such sales.
Abstract: Abstract In the winter of 2004–2005, over 300 of West Virginia's farmers' market vendors were surveyed with regard to sales levels, promotional techniques and operational characteristics such as hours worked, types of products produced and length of season. Vendors were categorized based on part-time, full-time or retired status, and full-time farmers, both with and without off-farm jobs, were found to be distinct from part-time and retired vendors with respect to 2004 total farmers' market sales and the percentage of household income from farmers' markets. Econometric analysis [ordinary least squares (OLS)] was performed to identify the impact of explanatory variables on total farmers' market sales, percentage of household income from farmers' market sales and amount of household income from farmers' market sales. Independent variables such as bargaining, cost-plus pricing, selling at markets outside West Virginia and providing print materials were found to have a positive impact on annual sales. The number of products produced, distance traveled to market and number of weeks at market were also positively related to the percentage of income obtained from farmers' market sales. Both part-time and retired producers received a lower percentage of household income from farmers' markets relative to full-time producers. Retired and part-time, along with limited-resource vendors (with annual household income less than $20,000) were also found to have lower total sales in the 2004 season. Identifying the characteristics associated with greater farmers' market sales and a higher reliance on such sales for household income will help in the sustained success of markets as engines of economic development and small farm viability.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identified and quantified the problems faced as beginning teachers and the problems teachers currently face in West Virginia and found that teachers viewed time management, paperwork, and balancing school and home activities as a small to moderate problem for beginning teachers as well as a moderate to strong problem for current teachers.
Abstract: Leaders in the agricultural education profession established a goal to expand the number of programs offering high school agriculture education over the next 10 years. If the agricultural education profession is going to meet this challenge, it will need to increase its supply of qualified teachers. Currently agricultural education faces a shortage of qualified teachers. The situation is made worse by the attrition of teachers from the profession. One way to increase the number of qualified agricultural education teachers is to reduce the number of teachers who leave the profession early through attrition. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the problems faced as beginning teachers and the problems teachers currently face in West Virginia. Financial rewards for teaching were perceived as a moderate to strong problem for teachers as they entered the profession and as a moderate to strong problem for current teachers. Teachers viewed time management, paperwork, and balancing school and home activities as a slight to moderate problem for beginning teachers as well as a slight to moderate problem for current teachers. Respondents also felt facilities-equipment, student motivation, and discipline were slight to moderate problems for beginning teachers. Introduction/Theoretical Framework In 2005, The National Council for Agricultural Education announced a longrange strategic goal of having 10,000 agricultural science programs in place by the year 2015 (Team Ag Ed, n.d.). To place the 10 x 15 goal in perspective, in 2005 there were 7,242 active FFA chapters with 8,889 FFA advisors (Team Ag Ed). To meet this goal, the agricultural education profession will have to generate more than 2,500 additional certified agricultural education teachers in the next 10 years, a 33% increase above the average of 760 qualified teachers generated each year (Kantrovich, 2007). The 10 x 15 goal will exacerbate the current shortage of individuals willing to teach agricultural education. For example, in 2006 there were 785 individuals newly qualified to teach agricultural education. Only 69.8% of these newly qualified teachers entered the teaching profession, leaving 78 teaching positions unfilled (Kantrovich, 2007). Although the numbers have fluctuated, unfilled teaching positions in agricultural education have been an annual phenomenon. There are a number of factors that contribute to the teacher shortage. Agricultural education graduates are qualified for a number of private sector and government positions. In a regional study of agricultural education graduates, Hovatter (2002) found that 50% of certified graduates were employed in a profession other than teaching. Croasmun, Hampton, and Herrmann (1999) found that teacher attrition was the largest factor determining the demand for teachers in the United States. Approximately 20% of all K-12 teachers employed in 1994 were not in the same occupation 3 years later (Henke & Zahn, 2001). Nearly one in three first-year teachers employed in the 1970s left the profession (Croasmun et al.). In many situations, attrition is linked to the number and types of problems teachers face. A teacher’s success or failure in their given profession is dependent on their Journal of Agricultural Education Volume 50, Number 1, pp. 21 – 32 DOI: 10.5032/jae.2009.01021 Boone & Boone An Assessment of Problems... Journal of Agricultural Education 22 Volume 50, Number 1, 2009 ability to solve these problems. Numerous studies found salary to be one of the leading reasons for leaving the teaching profession (Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Many teachers leaving the profession indicated poor administrative support as the reason (Fox & Certo, 1999; Gersten, Gillman, Morvant, & Billingsley, 1995; Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self; U.S. Department of Education, 2002). Other problems linked to teacher attrition include lack of parental support (Fox & Certo; Self), lack of involvement in decision making (Fox & Certo; Gersten et al.; Ingersoll, 2001, 2003), student discipline (Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self), poor student motivation (Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self), large class sizes (Ingersoll, 2001), inadequate time to prepare (Ingersoll, 2001), and lack of community support (Ingersoll, 2001). To meet the 10 x 15 goal established by Team Ag Ed, steps must be taken to increase the supply of qualified agricultural education teachers. Because many teachers leave teaching because of problems they face (Fox & Certo, 1999; Gersten et al., 1995; Luekens, Lyter, & Fox, 2004; Self, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999, 2002), the profession needs to devote more time and energy to identifying and providing services to help the teachers through these situations. Review of Literature Job satisfaction is directly linked to the problems faced by teachers of agricultural education. Perie and Baker (1997) found that workplace factors/problems such as administrative support, parental involvement, and teacher control over the classroom were significant contributors to teacher satisfaction. A number of studies have examined the job satisfaction of agricultural education teachers and found they were satisfied with their jobs (Cano & Miller, 1992; Castillo, Conklin, & Cano, 1999; Flowers & Pepple, 1988; Newcomb, Betts, & Cano, 1987). Teachers who are satisfied with their career also perceive themselves as effective classroom teachers (Bruening & Hoover, 1991). A review of the literature identified the following problems faced by teachers: salaries (Croasmun et al., 1999; Fox & Certo, 1999; Self, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 2002), marital status (Croasmun et al.), low ability students (Farrington, 1980), student motivation (Farrington; Heath-Camp, Camp, Adams-Casmus, Talbert, & Barber, 1992; Self, 2001; Veenman, 1987), demands of young and adult farmer programs (Farrington; Miller & Scheid, 1984), balancing school and personal lives (Godley, Klug, & Wilson, 1985; Mundt & Connors, 1999), community support (Heath-Camp et al.; Mundt & Connors), management and organizational skills (Godley et al.; Miller & Scheid; Mundt & Connors; Talbert, Camp, & HeathCamp, 1994), student discipline (Godley et al.; Heath-Camp et al.; Karge, 1993; Self; U.S. Department of Education, 1999; Talbert et al.; Veenman), administration support (Fox & Certo; Gersten et al., 1995; Mundt & Connors; Self; Sultana, 2002; Veenman), facilities and equipment (Farrington; Heath-Camp et al.; Veenman), time management (Heath-Camp et al.; Mundt & Connors; Talbert et al.; Veenman), lesson planning (Heath-Camp et al.; Talbert et al.), recruiting students (Mundt & Connors), paperwork (Karge; Mundt & Connors; Veenman), parental relationships (Fox & Certo; Heath-Camp et al.; U.S. Department of Education, 1999, Veenman), stress (U.S. Department of Education, 1999), and preparation (U.S. Department of Education, 2002).
TL;DR: For example, this paper found that family encouragement, positive relationships with professors, and positive course experiences were the most agreed social factors that encourage student persistence at a four-year research university.
Abstract: This study analyzed undergraduate students' (n = 280) attitudes toward selected social factors that would influence and discourage student persistence at a four-year research university. Using a modified Delphi technique to construct the questionnaire, the researchers discovered that family encouragement, positive relationships with professors, and positive course experiences were the most agreed social factors that encourage student persistence. Additionally, respondents agreed that burn out from school-related responsibilities, lack of time management skills, and the inability to handle stress as negative social factors that would discourage student persistence. The article concludes with a discussion about the role and importance of universities to invest in the required amount of effort needed to ensure that students are experiencing academic success and social congruence. Introduction and Theoretical Framework Over the past few years, student retention and persistence at colleges and universities throughout the United States has become an important component for higher education. Although college enrollment numbers have steadily increased, far too many of these students never finish. According to the latest reports by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), only 31% of the students who began as first-year full-time undergraduates at 4 year public institutions in 2002 completed a Bachelor's degree within six years (Aud et al., 2011). In contrast, Raley (2007) reports that six out of every 10jobs require some form of postsecondary education. As such, the United States, once a world leader in the number of 25 to 34 year olds with college degrees, now ranks 12th among the 36 developed nations with only 42% (Lewin, 2011). Even at private institutions (not-for-profit and for-profit), the graduation rates remain similar to the national trend (35% at not for profit and 13% at for profit institutions). As a result, the growing concern of the United States education deficit has invoked education leaders and policy makers to create new ways to bolster college completion rates. The President's initiative, Race to the Top, has allocated over 193 million dollars in federal funds to assist states in increasing graduation rates (Lewin, 2011). The initiative's aim is meeting the goal of having 8 million college graduates by the year 2020 which will help the United States again lead the world in educational attainment. With almost 70% of high school graduates enrolling in post-secondary institutions every year, America's colleges and universities must continue to develop ways to retain its student population for degree completion. Though access to higher education has increased and the gap in access between various race and ethnic groups has decreased, there is still much to do to translate access to college into college success (Tinto, 2010). The need to understand and improve college persistence is critical. As Carey (2005) states: "the pressures of global competition, once limited to lower-skill jobs, are steadily moving up the economic ladder as the well-paying jobs require far more in the way of knowledge, training, and skills than ever before" (p. 2). As such, it matters now more than ever, for colleges and universities to examine what factors affect student persistence. Although student retention and persistence research has spanned many decades (Blanc, DeBuhr, & Martin, 1983; Carey, 2005; Pascarella & Terinzini, 1991; Tinto, 1975; 2010), there is still much that is unknown. Students and their reasons for persistence or not matriculating through college vary tremendously. As the above mentioned research tells us, there in no one solution to the graduation rate problem in addition to the multitude of information yet to be uncovered. Even so, as college attrition has been examined on many student characteristics, current research tells us that students success is a function of both social and academic engagement (Carey, 2005). …
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the available literature and then clubbing the received information with coherent scientific thinking, the authors attempt to gradually build a construct around Likert scale.
Abstract: Likert scale is applied as one of the most fundamental and frequently used psychometric tools in educational and social sciences research. Simultaneously, it is also subjected to a lot of debates and controversies in regards with the analysis and inclusion of points on the scale. With this context, through reviewing the available literature and then clubbing the received information with coherent scientific thinking, this paper attempts to gradually build a construct around Likert scale. This analytical review begins with the necessity of psychometric tools like Likert scale andits variants and focuses on some convoluted issues like validity, reliability and analysis of the scale.
TL;DR: In the United States, the number of farmers markets has increased significantly over the last decade, a 150% in crease from 1994 through 2006 (AMS 2007), and total nationwide sales for the 2005 season were estimated at $1 billion, reflecting 13% sales growth since 2000 (USDA 2006) as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: A growing interest in sourcing local food prod ucts is reflected in two recent best-selling books (Kingsolver, Hopp, and Kingsolver 2007; Pollan 2008) that make the case for "going local." Darby et al. (2008) recently found that consumers prefer locally grown over U.S. grown, even when freshness is held constant, and are willing to pay almost double for a product from a closer location. A sur vey by the Hartman Group (2008) found that many consumers define local in terms of dis tance from their home; one-half said that local meant "made or produced within 100 miles," while one-third of consumers (37%) under stood local to mean "made or produced in my state." Farmers markets could be considered the historical flagship of local food systems, and their numbers in the United States have grown significantly over the last decade, a 150% in crease from 1994 through 2006 (AMS 2007). Total nationwide sales for the 2005 season were estimated at $1 billion, reflecting 13% sales growth since 2000 (USDA 2006). Re search on farmers markets is not new; an in ventory of farmers market research (Brown 2002) mentions studies as far back as the 1940s. Brown's literature review, however, ends with research in 2000. Since that time the number of farmers markets has increased by 53% (AMS 2007), and research on farmers markets has also grown. Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) is a marketing strategy where consumers buy "shares" in the farm before planting begins and receive a portion of whatever is available each week of the growing season. These shares gen erally cost several hundred dollars and provide enough fresh produce for a family; some shares include other products, such as eggs, honey, flowers, and/or meat. First introduced into the United States in 1985 and estimated at only 50 farms in 1990, CSA farms now number over 1,900 (LocalHarvest 2008). Research on CSA has also increased, although much is descrip tive research or case studies of a small number of farms (AFSIC 2008). This review of litera ture focuses on research that examines the im pacts that CSA and farmers markets have on farmers, consumers, and communities, follow ing up on Brown's (2002) findings by reviewing research conducted on farmers markets since 2000.
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TL;DR: The authors found that small and medium-sized farms dominate local foods sales marketed exclusively through direct-to-consumer channels (foods sold at roadside stands or farmers' markets, for example) while large farms dominated local food sales marketing exclusively through intermediated channels.
Abstract: This study uses nationally representative data on the marketing of local foods to assess the relative scale of local food marketing channels. This research documents that sales through intermediated marketing channels, such as farmers’ sales to local grocers and restaurants, account for a large portion of all local food sales. Small and medium-sized farms dominate local foods sales marketed exclusively through direct-to-consumer channels (foods sold at roadside stands or farmers’ markets, for example) while large farms dominate local food sales marketed exclusively through intermediated channels. Farmers marketing food locally are most prominent in the Northeast and the West Coast regions and areas close to densely populated urban markets. Climate and topography favoring the production of fruits and vegetables, proximity to and neighboring farm participation in farmers’ markets, and good transportation and information access are found to be associated with higher levels of direct-to-consumer sales.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the results of a survey conducted through an anonymous questionnaire made in collaboration with Insubria University, with particular attention to sustainability issues and the application of circular economy principles.
Abstract: The significant changes which have occurred in the competitive scenario in which fashion companies operate, combined with deep transformation in the lifestyles of final consumers, translate into the need to redefine the business models. Starting from a general overview of the emerging trends today affecting the fashion industry, the paper will devote particular attention to the analysis of the most important phenomena that are influencing this market and the drivers for long-lasting competitiveness: sustainability and attention to the so-called circular economy. According to the literature, from the consumer behavior’s point of view, the younger generations are paying growing attention to these issues. In light of these considerations, this paper aimed to analyze how sustainability and circular economy principles are influencing the perception of the fashion world among the new generations of consumers. After mapping the emerging trends in the fashion industry and analyzing the role of sustainability from both the demand and supply side, this paper presents the results of a survey conducted through an anonymous questionnaire made in collaboration with Insubria University. The results of the survey describe the students’ behaviour as regards fashion’s emerging trends, with particular attention to sustainability issues and the application of circular economy principles. The survey results were analyzed from both a descriptive and quantitative point of view with the aim to check the different perceptions as regards sustainable fashion and circular economy in fashion, focusing mainly on the so-called Generation Z. The results of the analysis proved to be consistent with the theoretical framework and confirm the relevance of sustainability issues in the fashion industry today in driving the demand of Generation Z, by considering a gender perspective. Moreover, the circular economy is descriptively analyzed with the aim to understand the relevance of the different facets for the entire sample of respondents.
TL;DR: This paper conducted case studies of three organic farming operations of different sizes and compared their marketing costs and profitability in alternative marketing channels, such as farmers' markets and community supported agriculture (CSAs).
Abstract: Direct marketing is a popular marketing practice among smaller producers in the United States. We conducted detailed case studies of three organic farming operations of different sizes and compared their marketing costs and profitability in alternative marketing channels. We classified marketing-related activities into three categories: packing and storage, transportation, and selling and administration. By measuring the costs for labor, purchased goods and services, and capital assets associated with these marketing activities, we determined that there are significant variations in marketing costs across marketing channels. For each of our three case-study farms, marketing costs per dollar of revenue were lowest in the wholesale channel and highest in the farmers' market channel. Significant labor costs for the selling activity and transportation expenses offset the higher prices and minimal packaging costs associated with farmers' markets. Profitability can also be significantly affected by marketing factors, such as packing and grading standards, and product that is used for sampling and consumer premiums. Our research demonstrates that the higher prices that producers earn from direct marketing rather than wholesaling are not pure profit; the price premiums are compensation for the costs they incur when direct marketing their produce. Direct marketing channels, such as farmers' markets and Community Supported Agriculture (CSAs), can enable smaller farmers to build financially viable operations, by gaining access to markets, growing their farming operations and reducing their marketing risk. However, to achieve this success, farmers must manage their marketing costs as well as their production costs.