Bio: Deborah Lowry is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Divergence. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publication(s) receiving 29 citation(s).
01 Jan 2009
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: Differences by education in treatment adherence among patients with two illnesses, diabetes and HIV, are examined, and the subsequent impact of differential adherence on health status is assessed.
Abstract: There are large differences in health outcomes by socioeconomic status (SES) that cannot be explained fully by traditional arguments, such as access to care or poor health behaviors. We consider a different explanation - better self-management of disease by the more educated. We examine differences by education in treatment adherence among patients with two illnesses, diabetes and HIV, and then assess the subsequent impact of differential adherence on health status. One unique component of this research is that for diabetes we combine two different surveys - one cohort study and one randomized clinical trial - that are usually used exclusively by either biomedical or/and social scientists separately. For both illnesses, we find significant effects of adherence that are much stronger among patients with high SES. After controlling for other factors, more educated HIV+ patients are more likely to adhere to therapy, and this adherence made them experience improvements in their self-reported general health. Similarly, among diabetics, the less educated were much more likely to switch treatment, which led to worsening general health. In the randomized trial setting, intensive treatment regimens that compensated for poor adherence led to better improvements in glycemic control for the less educated. Among two distinct chronic illnesses, the ability to maintain a better health regimen is an important independent determinant of subsequent health outcomes. This finding is robust across clinical trial and population-based settings. Because this ability varies by schooling, self-maintenance is an important reason for the steep SES gradient in health outcomes.
01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a global assessment of the relationship between formal education and adult health, using sample data from 70 countries that participated in the World Health Survey and find that an increase in formal education is associated with lower levels of disability in both younger and older adults.
Abstract: Contemporary research primarily in the West offers a strong case for the relationship between formal education and adult health; more education, measured either by level completed or years of schooling, is associated, often in a stepwise fashion, with lower levels of mortality, morbidity and disability. In this study, we attempt to provide a global assessment of that relationship as it pertains to adult disability, using sample data from 70 countries that participated in the World Health Survey. In each of five regions and some of the largest countries outside the West we find that an increase in formal education is associated with lower levels of disability in both younger and older adults. Using the regional education-based differentials and several estimates of growth in education levels, we project levels of disability to 2050 to estimate the health and human capital benefits obtained from investments in education. We find that considering education in the population projection consistently shows lower prevalence of disability in the future, and that scenarios with better education attainment lead to lower prevalence. It is apparent that the educational dividend identified in our projection scenario should be an important policy goal, which, if anything, should be more speedily advanced in those countries and regions that have the greatest need.
01 Feb 2015-Social Science & Medicine
TL;DR: Primary education has a stronger effect on mortality for men than for women and the effect of education is stronger for the young old than for the oldest old, which underscores the importance of national and subpopulation contexts in understanding the relationship between education and mortality.
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between education and mortality, its underlying mechanisms, and its gender and age variations among older adults in China, using data from the 2002 to 2011 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. There is an inverse relationship between education and mortality risk. The relationship is explained in full by each of the three mechanisms: other socioeconomic attainments, social relationships and activities, and health status, and partially by physical exercise. In addition, primary education has a stronger effect on mortality for men than for women and the effect of education is stronger for the young old than for the oldest old. These findings underscore the importance of national and subpopulation contexts in understanding the relationship between education and mortality.
01 Nov 2014-Health & Place
TL;DR: The results show that older Chinese women, rural residents, those with an education level lower than high school, without individual income sources, who are ex-smokers, and those from poor economic status households are more likely to report disability and poor self-rated health.
Abstract: This paper uses multi-level modelling to analyse data from the nationally-representative Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in order to investigate the characteristics associated with poor health among older people, including individual and household characteristics as well as the characteristics of the provinces in which the older person lives (contextual effects). The results show that older Chinese women, rural residents, those with an education level lower than high school, without individual income sources, who are ex-smokers, and those from poor economic status households are more likely to report disability and poor self-rated health. Differentials in the health outcomes remain substantial between provinces even after controlling for a number of individual and household characteristics.
26 Oct 2012-Annals of Human Biology
TL;DR: There is an asynchronous pattern in the onset of puberty among Chinese boys, with urban boys achieving pubertal milestones at an earlier age than rural peers except for G5.
Abstract: Aim: To provide up-to-date pubertal characteristics in a representative population of boys from both urban and rural areas of China. Subjects and methods: The China Puberty Research Collaboration enrolled 15 011 boys of Chinese Han ethnicity aged 6.0–18.9 years in eight regions including both urban and rural areas. Stages of genital and pubic hair development were assessed by trained physicians according to the Tanner method. Testicular volume was evaluated with a Prader orchidometer. Results: Median age for onset of testicular volume of 4 mL or greater was 11.02 years. Median age for onset of genital (G2), pubic hair development (PH2) and spermarche was 11.24 years, 12.67 years and 14.32 years, respectively. Boys with BMI ≥ 85th percentile reached the onset of TV ≥ 4 ml (11.09 years), G2 (11.34 years) and G3 (13.01 years) later than boys with a normal BMI (10.95 years, 11.1 years and 12.88 years, respectively). Urban boys achieved pubertal milestones at an earlier age than rural peers except for G5 (13.4...