Bio: Deirdre Daly is an academic researcher from Trinity College, Dublin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Pregnancy. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 47 publications receiving 448 citations. Previous affiliations of Deirdre Daly include Rotunda Hospital & University College Dublin.
TL;DR: Clinicians’ personal beliefs are identified as a major factor that influenced the decision to perform caesarean section, further contributed by the influence of factors related to the health care system and clinicians’ characteristics.
Abstract: Background Caesarean section rates are increasing worldwide and are a growing concern with limited explanation of the factors that influence the rising trend. Understanding obstetricians’ and midwives’ views can give insight to the problem. This systematic review aimed to offer insight and understanding, through aggregation, summary, synthesis and interpretation of findings from studies that report obstetricians’ and midwives’ views on the factors that influence the decision to perform caesarean section. Methods The electronic databases of PubMed (1958–2016), CINAHL (1988–2016), Maternity and Infant Care (1971–2016), PsycINFO (1980–2016) and Web of Science (1991–2016) were searched in September 2016. All quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies, published in English, whose aim was to explore obstetricians’ and/or midwives’ views of factors influencing decision-making for caesarean section were included. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors for selection by title, abstract and full text. Thomas et al’s 12 assessment criteria checklist (2003) was used to assess methodological quality of the included studies. Result The review included 34 studies: 19 quantitative, 14 qualitative, and one using mixed methods, involving 7785 obstetricians and 1197 midwives from 20 countries. Three main themes, each with several subthemes, emerged. Theme 1: “clinicians’ personal beliefs”–(‘Professional philosophies’; ‘beliefs in relation to women’s request for CS’; ‘ambiguous versus clear clinical reasons’); Theme 2: “health care systems”–(‘litigation’; ‘resources’; ‘private versus public/insurance/payments’; ‘guidelines and management policy’). Theme 3: “clinicians’ characteristics” (‘personal convenience’; ‘clinicians’ demographics’; ‘confidence and skills’). Conclusion This systematic review and metasynthesis identified clinicians’ personal beliefs as a major factor that influenced the decision to perform caesarean section, further contributed by the influence of factors related to the health care system and clinicians’ characteristics. Obstetricians and midwives are directly involved in the decision to perform a caesarean section, hence their perspectives are vital in understanding various factors that have influence on decision-making for caesarean section. These results can help clinicians identify and acknowledge their role as crucial members in the decision-making process for caesarean section within their organisation, and to develop intervention studies to reduce caesarean section rates in future.
Public Health Research Institute1, Leiden University Medical Center2, VU University Amsterdam3, University of Copenhagen4, Vrije Universiteit Brussel5, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven6, University of Antwerp7, University of Chile8, University of Liverpool9, Hannover Medical School10, RMIT University11, Trinity College, Dublin12, University College Cork13, University of Malta14, Bergen University College15, Boston University16, National Institute for Health and Welfare17, Karolinska Institutet18
TL;DR: Largest variations were found for augmentation of labour, pain relief, episiotomy, instrumental birth, and cesarean section (CS) guidelines, and no statistically significant variation was found for perinatal mortality.
Abstract: COST Action 'BIRTH' (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) IS1405 University of Liverpool
TL;DR: Considerable proportions of nulliparous women leak urine before and during pregnancy, and most ignore symptoms, so healthcare professionals have several opportunities for promoting continence in all pregnant women, particularly in women with identifiable risk factors.
Abstract: While many women report urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy, associations with pre-pregnancy urinary leakage remain under-explained. We performed a multi-strand prospective cohort study with 860 nulliparous women recruited during pregnancy. Prevalence of any urinary leakage was 34.8% before and 38.7% during pregnancy. Prevalence of UI, leaking urine at least once per month, was 7.2% and 17.7% respectively. Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was reported by 59.7% of women before and 58.8% during pregnancy, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by 22.6% and 37.2%, and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) by 17.7% and 4.0%, respectively. SUI accounted for half (50.0%), MUI for less than half (44.2%), and UUI for 5.8% of new-onset UI in pregnancy. Pre-pregnancy UI was significantly associated with childhood enuresis [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–5.6, p = 0.001) and a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.9–9.4, p <0.001). Women aged ≥35 years (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.9, p = 0.005), women whose pre-pregnancy BMI was 25–29.99 kg/m2 (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.5, p = 0.01), and women who leaked urine less than once per month (AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6–4.1, p <0.005) were significantly more likely to report new-onset UI in pregnancy. Considerable proportions of nulliparous women leak urine before and during pregnancy, and most ignore symptoms. Healthcare professionals have several opportunities for promoting continence in all pregnant women, particularly in women with identifiable risk factors. If enquiry about UI, and offering advice on effective preventative and curative treatments, became routine in clinical practice, it is likely that some of these women could become or stay continent.
TL;DR: Preparing women and their partners during the antenatal period and advising on simple measures, such as use of lubrication to avoid or minimise sexual health issues, could potentially remove stress, anxiety and fears regarding intimacy after birth.
Abstract: Many women are not prepared for changes to their sexual health after childbirth. The aim of this paper is to report on the prevalence of and the potential risk factors (pre-pregnancy dyspareunia, mode of birth, perineal trauma and breastfeeding) for sexual health issues (dyspareunia, lack of vaginal lubrication and a loss of interest in sexual activity) at 6 and 12 months postpartum. A longitudinal cohort study of 832 first-time mothers who were recruited in early pregnancy and returned postnatal surveys at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postpartum were assessed for sexual health issues and associated risk factors. Nearly half of the women (46.3%) reported a lack of interest in sexual activity, 43% experienced a lack of vaginal lubrication and 37.5% of included women had dyspareunia 6 months after birth. On univariate analysis, vacuum-assisted birth, 2nd degree perineal tears, 3rd degree perineal tears and episiotomy were all associated with dyspareunia 6 months postpartum, but, of these only 3rd degree tears, in association with breastfeeding and pre-existing dyspareunia, remained significant on multivariable analysis. Breastfeeding, in combination, with other significant factors, was associated with dyspareunia, a lack of vaginal lubrication and a loss of interest in sexual activity 6 months postpartum, and, dissatisfaction with body image emerged as a significant factor associated with lack of interest in sexual activity at 12 months postpartum. Pre-pregnancy dyspareunia and breastfeeding emerged as common factors associated with all three outcomes of dyspareunia, a lack of vaginal lubrication and a loss of interest in sexual activity at 6 months postpartum. Breastfeeding and pre-existing dyspareunia are associated with sexual health issues at 6 months postpartum. Pre-existing dyspareunia is associated with a lack of vaginal lubrication at 12 months postpartum and breastfeeding is associated with dissatisfaction with body image. Preparing women and their partners during the antenatal period and advising on simple measures, such as use of lubrication to avoid or minimise sexual health issues, could potentially remove stress, anxiety and fears regarding intimacy after birth. Introducing the topic of pre-existing sexual health issues antenatally may facilitate appropriate support, treatment or counselling for women.
TL;DR: A systematic review of reviews found there is an absence of salutogenically-focused outcomes reported in intrapartum intervention-based research, and recommends the development of a core outcome data set ofSalutogenic outcomes for intrapartsum research.
Abstract: Introduction: research on intrapartum interventions in maternity care has focused traditionally on the identification of risk factors' and on the reduction of adverse outcomes with less attention given to the measurement of factors that contribute to well-being and positive health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of reviews to determine the type and number of salutogenically-focused reported outcomes in current maternity care intrapartum intervention-based research. For the conduct of this review, we interpreted salutogenic outcomes as those relating to optimum and/or positive maternal and neonatal health and well-being. Objectives: to identify salutogenically-focused outcomes reported in systematic reviews of randomised trials of intrapartum interventions. Review methods: we searched Issue 9 (September) 2011 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for all reviews of intrapartum interventions published by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group using the group filter “hm-preg”. Systematic reviews of randomised trials of intrapartum interventions were eligible for inclusion. We excluded protocols for systematic reviews and systematic reviews that had been withdrawn. Outcome data were extracted independently from each included review by at least two review authors. Unique lists of salutogenically and non-salutogenically focused outcomes were established. Results: 16 salutogenically-focused outcome categories were identified in 102 included reviews. Maternal satisfaction and breast feeding were reported most frequently. 49 non-salutogenically-focused outcome categories were identified in the 102 included reviews. Measures of neonatal morbidity were reported most frequently. Conclusion: there is an absence of salutogenically-focused outcomes reported in intrapartum interventionbased research. We recommend the development of a core outcome data set of salutogenically-focused outcomes for intrapartum research.
TL;DR: It is concluded that interventions to reduce overuse must be multicomponent and locally tailored, addressing women's and health professionals' concerns, as well as health system and financial factors.
Abstract: Optimising the use of caesarean section (CS) is of global concern. Underuse leads to maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Conversely, overuse of CS has not shown benefits and can create harm. Worldwide, the frequency of CS continues to increase, and interventions to reduce unnecessary CSs have shown little success. Identifying the underlying factors for the continuing increase in CS use could improve the efficacy of interventions. In this Series paper, we describe the factors for CS use that are associated with women, families, health professionals, and health-care organisations and systems, and we examine behavioural, psychosocial, health system, and financial factors. We also outline the type and effects of interventions to reduce CS use that have been investigated. Clinical interventions, such as external cephalic version for breech delivery at term, vaginal breech delivery in appropriately selected women, and vaginal birth after CS, could reduce the frequency of CS use. Approaches such as labour companionship and midwife-led care have been associated with higher proportions of physiological births, safer outcomes, and lower health-care costs relative to control groups without these interventions, and with positive maternal experiences, in high-income countries. Such approaches need to be assessed in middle-income and low-income countries. Educational interventions for women should be complemented with meaningful dialogue with health professionals and effective emotional support for women and families. Investing in the training of health professionals, eliminating financial incentives for CS use, and reducing fear of litigation is fundamental. Safe, private, welcoming, and adequately resourced facilities are needed. At the country level, effective medical leadership is essential to ensure CS is used only when indicated. We conclude that interventions to reduce overuse must be multicomponent and locally tailored, addressing women's and health professionals' concerns, as well as health system and financial factors.
TL;DR: It is hypothesize that the addition of structural determinants and root causes will identify racism as a cause of inequities in maternal health outcomes, as many of the social and political structures and policies in the United States were born out of racism, classism, and gender oppression.
Abstract: Since the World Health Organization launched its commission on the social determinants of health (SDOH) over a decade ago, a large body of research has proven that social determinants-defined as the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age-are significant drivers of disease risk and susceptibility within clinical care and public health systems. Unfortunately, the term has lost meaning within systems of care because of misuse and lack of context. As many disparate health outcomes remain, including higher risk of maternal mortality among Black women, a deeper understanding of the SDOH-and what forces underlie their distribution-is needed. In this article, we will expand our review of social determinants of maternal health to include the terms "structural determinants of health" and "root causes of inequities" as we assess the literature on this topic. We hypothesize that the addition of structural determinants and root causes will identify racism as a cause of inequities in maternal health outcomes, as many of the social and political structures and policies in the United States were born out of racism, classism, and gender oppression. We will conclude with proposed practice and policy solutions to end inequities in maternal health outcomes.
01 Apr 2004