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Dennis C. Bley

Bio: Dennis C. Bley is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Risk assessment & Risk management. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 16 publications receiving 11 citations.

Papers
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: The radiation legacy left from nuclear weapons production is one of the forces compelling countries ofthe former Soviet Union to undertake risk assessment and risk management as mentioned in this paper, and this legacy is also compelling them to understand and manage risk perceptions.
Abstract: The radiation legacy left from nuclear weapons production is one of the forces compelling countries ofthe former Soviet Union to undertake risk assessment and risk management. This legacy is also compelling them to understand and manage risk perceptions. Operations ofthe nuclear production complex ofthe former Soviet Union resulted in the accumulation ofabout 500 million cubic meters ofradioactive waste with an aggregate radioactivity about 1. 7 billion curies. This chapter describes, based on published information, the structure, composition, and arrangement ofthat production complex; sites ofnuclear weapon tests; locations for storage and disposal ofradioactive waste; and territories exposed to radioactive contamination as a result ofnominal activity and radiation accidents. As the author notes, iflarge affected areas are considered, then the historical radiation fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon testing exceeds in magnitude many ofthe sources discussed in this chapter.

3 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the major environmental releases that resulted from past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons, and the resultant radiation dose to individuals living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction.
Abstract: Another way to look at Cold War legacies is to examine the major environmental releases that resulted from past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Examining these historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States such as the Hanford facility; several are also underway in other countries such as at the Mayak facility in Russia. The efforts in the United States are mostly based on historical operating records and current conditions which are used to estimate environmental releases transport and human exposure. The Russian efforts are largely based on environmental measurements and measurements of human subjects; environmental transport modelling when conducted is used to organize and validate the measurements.

2 citations

BookDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview of the role of risk management and risk analysis for decision makers in the management of nuclear power plants in the U.S. and Russia.
Abstract: List of Contributors. Preface. Acknowledgements. 1. Introduction. I: Unifying Risk Management and Risk Analysis for Decision Makers. 2. Complementary Risk Management: A Unified View for Decision Makers. II: Legacies. 3. Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex. 4. Status and Challenges of Managing Risks in the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Program. 5. Perception of Risk, Health, and Equality. 6. Risk-Based Banking Experiences for Cold War Legacy Facilities. 7. Cleanup of Radioactive Floating Refuse at Vromos Bay. 8. Integrated Accident Risk Analysis and Applications for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. 9. Environmental Radiation Dose Reconstruction for U.S. and Russian Weapons Production Facilities: Hanford and Mayak. 10. Quantitative Risk Assessment Methods of Accounting for Probabilistic and Deterministic Data Applied to Complex Systems. III: Analyses and Programs Applicable to Legacies. 11. Environmental Risk Assessment of Installations and Sites Inherited from the Cold War Period in Bulgaria. 12. Radiation Factors Risk Assessment within the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant Exclusion Zone. 13. Psychological Aspects of Risk Assessment and Management. 14. Utilizing a Multimedia Approach for Risk Analysis of Environmental Systems. 15. Using Integrated Quantitative Risk Assessment to Optimise Safety in Chemical Installations. 16. Site-Specific Modification of Ground-Water Generic Criteria as Applied to a Contaminated Site. IV: Future Directions. 17. East Meets West: Teaming on Risk Management. 18. Where are We Going? Appendix A: Programme for NATO Advanced Study Institute, Risk Assessment Activities for the Cold War Facilities and Environmental Legacies. Appendix B: Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in Text. Appendix C: Cross Cultural Guide to the Book. Index.

2 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the efforts of the U.S. Army to remediate the legacy of chemical weapons stored in the United States and use a risk management approach to control the process.
Abstract: Although many studies could benefit from the aspects of risk assessment described in this book to clean up Cold War legacies only a few studies have integrated risk management and risk assessment well. This chapter describes one such study—efforts of the U.S. Army to remediate the legacy of chemical weapons stored in the United States. This effort addressed the human risk associated with that storage developed and implemented a process to destroy the chemical weapon energetics and agent analysed the facility and human risk associated with the destruction process and used a risk management approach to control the process. The risk analysis is an accident analysis. Risk from routine operations and mild accidents is examined in other studies and is small compared with the risk of more severe accidents.

1 citations

01 May 2003
TL;DR: Risk assessment activities for the Cold War Facilities and Environmental Legacies was discussed at the Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in 2000 as discussed by the authors, where the authors provided information to facilitate and enable decision-making activities affecting the environment and human populations in the NATO and partner countries.
Abstract: The Cold War Era left the major participants, the United States and the former Soviet Union (FSU), with large environmental legacies in terms of facility contamination and environmental degradation. Although the countries face similar issues from similar activities, important differences in waste management practices make the potential environmental and health risks of more immediate concern in the FSU and Eastern Europe. In the West, most nuclear and chemical waste is stored in known contained locations, while in the East much of the equivalent material is unconfined, contaminating the environment. The knowledge and experiences of the U.S. in these initial cleanup efforts are seen as important information in many North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Partner countries, where the environmental problems are more severe and the cleanup budgets more limited. An Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on ''Risk Assessment Activities for the Cold War Facilities and Environmental Legacies'' was held in Bourgas, Bulgaria, May 2-11, 2000. The objective of the ASI was to provide information to facilitate and enable decision-making activities affecting the environment and human populations in the NATO and Partner countries. Specifically, the ASI provided a forum to communicate the current status of risk analysis and management methodologies and their appropriatemore » application. It addressed scientific approaches and application experiences from the initial U.S. risk assessment activities. This book is the product of the ASI. The power of the text lies in linking information on legacies with an integrated view of controlling the risk of those legacies. Risk can only be effectively controlled by proper balance of three central concepts: risk analysis, risk perception, and risk management. The editors were drawn together by the joint recognition that risk analysis methods had matured over the past 30 years in several fields, relatively independent of each other. It was time to integrate all these forms of risk analysis under one framework, identifying the reasons for the seemingly disparate approaches and the gains to be reaped by bringing them together. Part I of this book gives detailed information on the three central concepts and gives further definition to facility-centered and human-centered approaches to risk analysis and risk management. Part II of this book gives extensive information on the legacies, our perception of the risk associated with them, and, in some cases, tools for analyzing that risk. Part III of the book relies heavily on applications as a means of presenting detailed information on risk assessment programs and methodologies. Finally, Part IV provides details on future activities. Applications were selected for this text that illustrate the strengths and limitations of different risk methodologies for assessments of military and Cold War legacy facilities in NATO and Partner countries. The textbook shows how specific needs have been met by the various risk methodologies and stress the need for an integrated view that uses the various risk methodologies in a complementary rather than competitive manner.« less

1 citations


Cited by
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01 Oct 1989
TL;DR: The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) as mentioned in this paper is a multi-year effort to estimate radiation doses that people could have received since 1944 from nuclear operations at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site.
Abstract: In a multi year effort that began in 1988, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are estimating radiation doses that people could have received since 1944 from nuclear operations at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Known as the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, the work has required the development of new methods and tools for dealing with unique technical and communication challenges. Scientists are doing probabilistic dose assessment -- rather than the more typical deterministic approach -- to generate dose distributions rather than single-point estimates. Uncertainties in input parameters are reflected in the dose results. Sensitivity analyses are used to optimize project resources in defining the project's scope. An independent technical steering panel directs and approves the work in a public forum. 3 figs.

30 citations

01 Jun 1994
TL;DR: The most significant exposure pathway was found to be the consumption of cow's milk containing 131I, and the geographic distribution of the dose levels was directly related to the pattern of 131I deposition and was affected by the distribution of commercial milk and leafy vegetables.
Abstract: Radiation doses to individuals were estimated for the years 1944-1992. The dose estimates were based on the radioactive-releases from the Hanford Site in south central Washington. Conceptual models and computer codes were used to reconstruct doses through the early 1970s. The published Hanford Site annual environmental data were used to complete the does history through 1992. The most significant exposure pathway was found to be the consumption of cow`s milk containing iodine-131. For the atmospheric pathway, median cumulative dose estimates to the thyroid of children ranged from < 0.1 to 235 rad throughout the area studied. The geographic distribution of the dose levels was directly related to the pattern of iodine-131 deposition and was affected by the distribution of commercial milk and leafy vegetables. For the atmospheric pathway, the-highest estimated cumulative-effective-dose-equivalent (EDE) to an adult was estimated to be 1 rem at Ringold, Washington for the period 1944-1992. For the Columbia River pathway, cumulative EDE estimates ranged from <0.5 to l.5 rem cumulative dose to maximally exposed adults downriver from the Hanford Site for the years 1944-1992. The most significant river exposure pathway was consumption of resident fish containing phosphorus-32 and zinc-65.

7 citations

01 Mar 2007
TL;DR: The Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Program (RSBP) as mentioned in this paper was a typical IIASA program: interdisciplinary, independent, and involving East-West collaboration, and it aimed to investigate the accumulation over the past 50 years of vast quantities of radioactive waste and numerous radioactively contaminated sites resulting from the production and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as from nuclear accidents, in several countries, particularly Russia and the United States.
Abstract: This publication signals the closure of IIASA's Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Program that started in 1995. The goal of the Program was to assess the world radiation legacy after the end of the Cold War. As such, it was a typical IIASA program: interdisciplinary, independent, and involving East-West collaboration. The Program aimed to investigate the accumulation over the past 50 years of vast quantities of radioactive waste and numerous radioactively contaminated sites resulting from the production and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as from nuclear accidents, in several countries, particularly Russia and the United States. While it was not possible for the Program to provide a complete inventory of all sites and remediation options, it did select the most significant examples. Studies of Russian sites, a comparison of these to similar sites in the United States, and ongoing studies in China helped to provide a greater perspective on the problem. The Program carried out one of the first unclassified studies of the local problems related to radioactive contamination in areas of the former Soviet Union. This led to the publication of the book "Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex", which presented the first authoritative and detailed information available outside the former Soviet Union about the nuclear inheritance of the past half-century. The Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Program also attracted the attention of policy makers to the problem of the nuclear legacy in urban areas. The directorate of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow requested IIASA to start an international study to assess the radiological risk and resulting public impact from past waste management practices at the Institute. Responding to this request, the Radiation Program performed a scoping analysis of the environmental and social impacts of the radioactive waste disposal sites on the premises of the Kurchatov Institute which, because of the growth of the city of Moscow over the last 50 years, had actually become a part of downtown Moscow. This case study, which is reported in this Research Report, is an illustration of the general problem of the nuclear legacy in urban areas. With this report IIASA finalizes a successful program, which was not only an example of the Institutes collaborative work across the East-West political divide but also of IIASA's commitment to addressing issues of global change.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How the people in Kiev, Ukraine, and in particular one individual in that city, Professor Vitaly Eremenko, became aware of the threat before the official announcement and the steps he took to mitigate potential impacts to his immediate family are described.
Abstract: The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident occurred in 1986. The plume from the explosions and fires was highly radioactive and resulted in very high exposure levels in the surrounding regions. This paper describes how the people in Kiev, Ukraine, a city 120 km (90 miles) south of Chernobyl, and in particular one individual in that city, Professor Vitaly Eremenko, became aware of the threat before the official announcement and the steps he took to mitigate potential impacts to his immediate family. The combination of being informed and using available resources led to greatly reduced consequences for his family and, in particular, his newborn granddaughter. He notes how quickly word of the some aspects of the hazard spread in the city and how other aspects appear to not have been understood. Although these events are being recalled as the 20 anniversary of the terrible event approaches, the lessons are still pertinent today. Threats of possible terrorist use of radiation dispersal devices makes knowledge of effective individual actions for self-protection from radiation exposures a topic of current interest.

4 citations