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Derek J. Fisher

Bio: Derek J. Fisher is an academic researcher from Southern Illinois University Carbondale. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mismatch negativity & Chlamydia trachomatis. The author has an hindex of 33, co-authored 116 publications receiving 3370 citations. Previous affiliations of Derek J. Fisher include Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre & Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Significant differences between the strains include numerous novel mobile elements and genes encoding metabolic capabilities, strain-specific extracellular polysaccharide capsule, sporulation factors, toxins, and other secreted enzymes, providing substantial insight into this medically important bacterial pathogen.
Abstract: Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, anaerobic spore-forming bacterium commonly found in soil, sediments, and the human gastrointestinal tract. C. perfringens is responsible for a wide spectrum of disease, including food poisoning, gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), enteritis necroticans, and non-foodborne gastrointestinal infections. The complete genome sequences of Clostridium perfringens strain ATCC 13124, a gas gangrene isolate and the species type strain, and the enterotoxin-producing food poisoning strain SM101, were determined and compared with the published C. perfringens strain 13 genome. Comparison of the three genomes revealed considerable genomic diversity with >300 unique "genomic islands" identified, with the majority of these islands unusually clustered on one replichore. PCR-based analysis indicated that the large genomic islands are widely variable across a large collection of C. perfringens strains. These islands encode genes that correlate to differences in virulence and phenotypic characteristics of these strains. Significant differences between the strains include numerous novel mobile elements and genes encoding metabolic capabilities, strain-specific extracellular polysaccharide capsule, sporulation factors, toxins, and other secreted enzymes, providing substantial insight into this medically important bacterial pathogen.

315 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of human and veterinary enteric disease largely because this bacterium can produce several toxins when present inside the gastrointestinal tract.
Abstract: The Gram-positive pathogenClostridium perfringens is a major cause of human and veterinary enteric disease largely because this bacterium can produce several toxins when present inside the gastrointestinal tract. The enteric toxins of C. perfringens share two common features: (1) they are all single polypeptides of modest (~25—35 kDa) size, although lacking in sequence homology, and (2) they generally act by forming pores or channels in plasma membranes of host cells. These enteric toxins include C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which is responsible for the symptoms of a common human food poisoning and acts by forming pores after interacting with intestinal tight junction proteins. Two other C. perfringens enteric toxins, ɛ-toxin (a bioterrorism select agent) and β-toxin, cause veterinary enterotoxemias when absorbed from the intestines; β- and ɛ-toxins then apparently act by forming oligomeric pores in intestinal or extra-intestinal target tissues. The action of a newly discovered C. perfringens enteric toxin, β2 toxin, has not yet been defined but precedent suggests it might also be a pore-former. Experience with other clostridial toxins certainly warrants continued research on these C. perfringens enteric toxins to develop their potential as therapeutic agents and tools for cellular biology.

204 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: PCR results suggest that CPB2 could be an accessory toxin in C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE)‐associated AAD/SD.
Abstract: Clostridium perfringens type A isolates carrying an enterotoxin (cpe) gene are an important cause of human gastrointestinal diseases, including food poisoning, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and sporadic diarrhoea (SD). Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the current study determined that the cpb2 gene encoding the recently discovered beta2 toxin is present in 75% of AAD/SD isolates, which usually carry a plasmid cpe gene, tested cpb2(+) by PCR. Western blot analysis demonstrated that >97% of those cpb2(+)/cpe(+) AAD/SD isolates can produce CPB2. Additional PCR analyses, sequencing studies and pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments determined that AAD/SD isolates carry cpb2 and cpe on the same plasmid when IS1151 sequences are present downstream of cpe, but cpb2 and cpe are located on different plasmids in AAD/SD isolates where IS1470-like sequences are present downstream of cpe. Those analyses also demonstrated that two different CPB2 variants (named CPB2h1 or CPB2h2) can be produced by AAD/SD isolates, dependent on whether IS1470-like or IS1151 sequences are present downstream of their cpe gene. CPB2h1 is approximately 10-fold more cytotoxic for CaCo-2 cells than is CPB2h2. Collectively, these results suggest that CPB2 could be an accessory toxin in C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE)-associated AAD/SD.

168 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate that CPB is both required and sufficient for CN3685‐induced enteric pathology, supporting a key role for this toxin in type C intestinal pathogenesis.
Abstract: Summary Clostridium perfringens type C isolates, which cause enteritis necroticans in humans and enteritis and enterotoxaemias of domestic animals, typically produce (at minimum) beta toxin (CPB), alpha toxin (CPA) and perfringolysin O (PFO) during log-phase growth. To assist development of improved vaccines and therapeutics, we evaluated the contribution of these three toxins to the intestinal virulence of type C disease isolate CN3685. Similar to natural type C infection, log-phase vegetative cultures of wild-type CN3685 caused haemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis in rabbit ileal loops. When isogenic toxin null mutants were prepared using TargeTron® technology, even a double cpa/pfoA null mutant of CN3685 remained virulent in ileal loops. However, two independent cpb null mutants were completely attenuated for virulence in this animal model. Complementation of a cpb mutant restored its CPB production and intestinal virulence. Additionally, pre-incubation of wild-type CN3685 with a CPB-neutralizing monoclonal antibody rendered the strain avirulent for causing intestinal pathology. Finally, highly purified CPB reproduced the intestinal damage of wild-type CN3685 and that damage was prevented by pre-incubating purified CPB with a CPB monoclonal antibody. These results indicate that CPB is both required and sufficient for CN3685-induced enteric pathology, supporting a key role for this toxin in type C intestinal pathogenesis.

157 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new strategy using group II intron-based Target-Tron technology to inactivate the alpha toxin gene in C. perfringens ATCC 3624 showed no production of alpha toxin protein in the culture supernatant of the plc mutant.
Abstract: In developing Clostridium perfringens as a safe vaccine vector, the alpha toxin gene (plc) in the bacterial chromosome must be permanently inactivated. Disrupting genes in C. perfringens by traditional mutagenesis methods is very difficult. Therefore, we developed a new strategy using group II intron-based Target-Tron technology to inactivate the plc gene in C. perfringens ATCC 3624. Western blot analysis showed no production of alpha toxin protein in the culture supernatant of the plc mutant. Advantages of this technology, such as site specificity, relatively high frequency of insertion, and introduction of no antibiotic resistance genes into the chromosome, could facilitate construction of other C. perfringens mutants.

143 citations


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01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: This is an introduction to the event related potential technique, which can help people facing with some malicious bugs inside their laptop to read a good book with a cup of tea in the afternoon.
Abstract: Thank you for downloading an introduction to the event related potential technique. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have look hundreds times for their favorite readings like this an introduction to the event related potential technique, but end up in malicious downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of tea in the afternoon, instead they are facing with some malicious bugs inside their laptop.

2,445 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: It is hypothesized that beta oscillations and/or coupling in the beta-band are expressed more strongly if the maintenance of the status quo is intended or predicted, than if a change is expected.
Abstract: In this review, we consider the potential functional role of beta-band oscillations, which at present is not yet well understood. We discuss evidence from recent studies on top-down mechanisms involved in cognitive processing, on the motor system and on the pathophysiology of movement disorders that suggest a unifying hypothesis: beta-band activity seems related to the maintenance of the current sensorimotor or cognitive state. We hypothesize that beta oscillations and/or coupling in the beta-band are expressed more strongly if the maintenance of the status quo is intended or predicted, than if a change is expected. Moreover, we suggest that pathological enhancement of beta-band activity is likely to result in an abnormal persistence of the status quo and a deterioration of flexible behavioural and cognitive control.

1,837 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of studies that focus on neuronal mechanisms underlying the MMN generation, discusses the two major explanatory hypotheses, and proposes predictive coding as a general framework that attempts to unify both.

1,114 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The rationale for the RDoC project, its essential features, and potential methods of transitioning from DSM/ICD categories to dimensionally‐oriented designs in research studies are summarized.

1,056 citations