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Detlef W. Bahnemann

Bio: Detlef W. Bahnemann is an academic researcher from Leibniz University of Hanover. The author has contributed to research in topics: Photocatalysis & Anatase. The author has an hindex of 88, co-authored 517 publications receiving 48826 citations. Previous affiliations of Detlef W. Bahnemann include Saint Petersburg State University & Federal University of Uberlandia.


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TL;DR: The slow pace of hazardous waste remediation at military installations around the world is causing a serious delay in conversion of many of these facilities to civilian uses as discussed by the authors, which is a serious problem.
Abstract: The civilian, commercial, and defense sectors of most advanced industrialized nations are faced with a tremendous set of environmental problems related to the remediation of hazardous wastes, contaminated groundwaters, and the control of toxic air contaminants. For example, the slow pace of hazardous waste remediation at military installations around the world is causing a serious delay in conversion of many of these facilities to civilian uses. Over the last 10 years problems related to hazardous waste remediation have emerged as a high national and international priority.

17,188 citations

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TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-analyses of the chiral stationary phase transition of Na6(CO3)(SO4)2, Na2SO4, and Na2CO3 of the Na2O/Na2O 2 mixture at the stationary phase and shows clear patterns in the response of these two materials to each other.
Abstract: Jenny Schneider,*,† Masaya Matsuoka,‡ Masato Takeuchi,‡ Jinlong Zhang, Yu Horiuchi,‡ Masakazu Anpo,‡ and Detlef W. Bahnemann*,† †Institut fur Technische Chemie, Leibniz Universitaẗ Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, D-30167 Hannover, Germany ‡Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai Osaka 599-8531, Japan Key Lab for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China

4,353 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, advances in the strategies for the visible light activation, origin of visible light activity, and electronic structure of various visible-light active TiO 2 photocatalysts are discussed in detail.
Abstract: The remarkable achievement by Fujishima and Honda (1972) in the photo-electrochemical water splitting results in the extensive use of TiO 2 nanomaterials for environmental purification and energy storage/conversion applications. Though there are many advantages for the TiO 2 compared to other semiconductor photocatalysts, its band gap of 3.2 eV restrains application to the UV-region of the electromagnetic spectrum ( λ ≤ 387.5 nm). As a result, development of visible-light active titanium dioxide is one of the key challenges in the field of semiconductor photocatalysis. In this review, advances in the strategies for the visible light activation, origin of visible-light activity, and electronic structure of various visible-light active TiO 2 photocatalysts are discussed in detail. It has also been shown that if appropriate models are used, the theoretical insights can successfully be employed to develop novel catalysts to enhance the photocatalytic performance in the visible region. Recent developments in theory and experiments in visible-light induced water splitting, degradation of environmental pollutants, water and air purification and antibacterial applications are also reviewed. Various strategies to identify appropriate dopants for improved visible-light absorption and electron–hole separation to enhance the photocatalytic activity are discussed in detail, and a number of recommendations are also presented.

921 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors summarized recent research on and development of semiconductor-based photocatalyst materials that are applicable to environmental remediation and/or chemical synthesis purposes, including the incorporation of noble metal nanoclusters onto the surface of semiconducted particles.
Abstract: This feature article summarizes recent research on and development of semiconductor-based photocatalyst materials that are applicable to environmental remediation and/or chemical synthesis purposes. A wide variety of TiO2 particles and/or films have been studied during the past 30 years because they are the most stable and powerful photocatalysts leading to the degradation of various organic pollutants. The photocatalytic performance of other semiconductor materials such as ZnO, SnO2, WO3, Fe2O3 and CdS has also been intensively investigated. A general limitation in the efficiency of any photocatalytic process is the recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, i.e., of electrons and holes, following bandgap illumination. Considerable efforts have been made to suppress this recombination and hence to enhance the charge carrier separation and the overall efficiency by means of coupling of different semiconductors with desirable matching of their electronic band structures, or incorporation of noble metal nanoclusters onto the surface of semiconductor photocatalyst particles. Modification of the physicochemical properties, such as particle size, surface area, porosity and/or crystallinity of the semiconductor materials, and optimization of the experimental conditions, such as pH, illumination conditions and/or catalyst loading, during photocatalytic reactions have also been carefully addressed to achieve high reaction rates or yields. To utilize solar energy more efficiently, i.e., to extend the optical absorption of the mostly UV-sensitive photocatalysts into the visible light range, numerous research groups have contributed to the development of novel visible light active photocatalysts. With the application of semiconductors with narrower bandgaps such as CdS, Fe2O3 and WO3 being straightforward choices, doping of wide bandgap semiconductors like TiO2 has been the most popular technique to enhance the catalysts' optical absorption abilities. Research on mixed-oxide-based semiconductor photocatalysts with deliberately modulated band structures has also attracted tremendous attention in the past decade, concentrating on, for example, the generation of H2 and/or O2 from H2O splitting, and the degradation of organic pollutants under visible light irradiation. Both theoretical calculations and experimental results have convincingly shown that the developed materials can serve as highly efficient photocatalysts that are both environmentally and economically significant.

869 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the synthesis of transparent colloidal solutions of extremely small titanium dioxide particles (d < 3 nm) in water, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile is presented.
Abstract: The syntheses of transparent colloidal solutions of extremely small titanium dioxide particles (d < 3 nm) in water, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile are presented. Quantum-size effects are observed during particle growth and at the final stages of synthesis. They are quantitatively interpreted by using a quantum mechanical model developed by Brus. The particles prepared in aqueous solution possess the anatase structure and consist of about 200 TiO_2 molecules at their final growth stage. The colloidal particles can be isolated from solution as white powders that are soluble in water and ethanol with no apparent change in their properties. In organic solvents the quantum-size TiO_2 particles appear to form with rutile structure. Excess negative charge on the particles resulting either from deprotonated surface hydroxyl groups or from photogenerated or externally injected charge carriers causes a blue shift in the electronic absorption spectrum, which is explained by an electrostatic model. Electrons can be trapped in the solid as a Ti^(3+) species, which has a characteristic visible absorption spectrum. As much as 10% of the available Ti^(4+) ions can be reduced photochemically in the solid with a quantum yield of 3%. Molecular oxygen reoxidizes the Ti^(3+) centers, leading to detectable amounts of surface-bound peroxides. The pH of zero point of charge (pH_(zpc)) of the aqueous colloidal suspension has been determined to be 5.1 ± 0.2. The acid-catalyzed dissolution of the aqueous colloid yielding Ti(IV) oligomers has been studied, and an activation energy E_a = 58 ± 4 kJ/mol has been measured for this reaction. The photocatalytic activity of the small TiO_2 particles is demonstrated.

845 citations


Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ryoji Asahi1, Takeshi Morikawa1, T. Ohwaki1, Koyu Aoki1, Y. Taga1 
13 Jul 2001-Science
TL;DR: Film and powders of TiO2-x Nx have revealed an improvement over titanium dioxide (TiO2) under visible light in optical absorption and photocatalytic activity such as photodegradations of methylene blue and gaseous acetaldehyde and hydrophilicity of the film surface.
Abstract: To use solar irradiation or interior lighting efficiently, we sought a photocatalyst with high reactivity under visible light. Films and powders of TiO 2- x N x have revealed an improvement over titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) under visible light (wavelength 2 has proven to be indispensable for band-gap narrowing and photocatalytic activity, as assessed by first-principles calculations and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy.

11,402 citations