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Dhiraj Joshi

Bio: Dhiraj Joshi is an academic researcher from IBM. The author has contributed to research in topics: Image retrieval & Geotagging. The author has an hindex of 26, co-authored 101 publications receiving 7796 citations. Previous affiliations of Dhiraj Joshi include Fuji Xerox & Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation are surveyed, and the spawning of related subfields are discussed, to discuss the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world.
Abstract: We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in content-based image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger association of weakly related fields. In this article, we survey almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation, and in the process discuss the spawning of related subfields. We also discuss significant challenges involved in the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world. In retrospect of what has been achieved so far, we also conjecture what the future may hold for image retrieval research.

3,433 citations

Book ChapterDOI
07 May 2006
TL;DR: This paper treats the challenge of automatically inferring aesthetic quality of pictures using their visual content as a machine learning problem, with a peer-rated online photo sharing Website as data source and extracts certain visual features based on the intuition that they can discriminate between aesthetically pleasing and displeasing images.
Abstract: Aesthetics, in the world of art and photography, refers to the principles of the nature and appreciation of beauty Judging beauty and other aesthetic qualities of photographs is a highly subjective task Hence, there is no unanimously agreed standard for measuring aesthetic value In spite of the lack of firm rules, certain features in photographic images are believed, by many, to please humans more than certain others In this paper, we treat the challenge of automatically inferring aesthetic quality of pictures using their visual content as a machine learning problem, with a peer-rated online photo sharing Website as data source We extract certain visual features based on the intuition that they can discriminate between aesthetically pleasing and displeasing images Automated classifiers are built using support vector machines and classification trees Linear regression on polynomial terms of the features is also applied to infer numerical aesthetics ratings The work attempts to explore the relationship between emotions which pictures arouse in people, and their low-level content Potential applications include content-based image retrieval and digital photography

1,008 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed generic parent-centric recombination operator (PCX) and a steady-state, elite-preserving, scalable, and computationally fast population-alteration model (G3 model) are proposed and found to consistently and reliably perform better than all other methods used in the study.
Abstract: Due to increasing interest in solving real-world optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms (EAs), researchers have recently developed a number of real-parameter genetic algorithms (GAs). In these studies, the main research effort is spent on developing an efficient recombination operator. Such recombination operators use probability distributions around the parent solutions to create an offspring. Some operators emphasize solutions at the center of mass of parents and some around the parents. In this paper, we propose a generic parent-centric recombination operator (PCX) and a steady-state, elite-preserving, scalable, and computationally fast population-alteration model (we call the G3 model). The performance of the G3 model with the PCX operator is investigated on three commonly used test problems and is compared with a number of evolutionary and classical optimization algorithms including other real-parameter GAs with the unimodal normal distribution crossover (UNDX) and the simplex crossover (SPX) operators, the correlated self-adaptive evolution strategy, the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES), the differential evolution technique, and the quasi-Newton method. The proposed approach is found to consistently and reliably perform better than all other methods used in the study. A scale-up study with problem sizes up to 500 variables shows a polynomial computational complexity of the proposed approach. This extensive study clearly demonstrates the power of the proposed technique in tackling real-parameter optimization problems.

606 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors treated the challenge of automatically inferring aesthetic quality of pictures using their visual content as a machine learning problem, with a peer-rated online photo sharing website as data source.
Abstract: Aesthetics, in the world of art and photography, refers to the principles of the nature and appreciation of beauty. Judging beauty and other aesthetic qualities of photographs is a highly subjective task. Hence, there is no unanimously agreed standard for measuring aesthetic value. In spite of the lack of firm rules, certain features in photographic images are believed, by many, to please humans more than certain others. In this paper, we treat the challenge of automatically inferring aesthetic quality of pictures using their visual content as a machine learning problem, with a peer-rated online photo sharing Website as data source. We extract certain visual features based on the intuition that they can discriminate between aesthetically pleasing and displeasing images. Automated classifiers are built using support vector machines and classification trees. Linear regression on polynomial terms of the features is also applied to infer numerical aesthetics ratings. The work attempts to explore the relationship between emotions which pictures arouse in people, and their low-level content. Potential applications include content-based image retrieval and digital photography.

582 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This tutorial defines and discusses key aspects of the problem of computational inference of aesthetics and emotion from images and describes data sets available for performing assessment and outline several real-world applications where research in this domain can be employed.
Abstract: In this tutorial, we define and discuss key aspects of the problem of computational inference of aesthetics and emotion from images. We begin with a background discussion on philosophy, photography, paintings, visual arts, and psychology. This is followed by introduction of a set of key computational problems that the research community has been striving to solve and the computational framework required for solving them. We also describe data sets available for performing assessment and outline several real-world applications where research in this domain can be employed. A significant number of papers that have attempted to solve problems in aesthetics and emotion inference are surveyed in this tutorial. We also discuss future directions that researchers can pursue and make a strong case for seriously attempting to solve problems in this research domain.

361 citations


Cited by
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Book
01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: This text provides an excellent introduction to the use of evolutionary algorithms in multi-objective optimization, allowing use as a graduate course text or for self-study.
Abstract: From the Publisher: Evolutionary algorithms are relatively new, but very powerful techniques used to find solutions to many real-world search and optimization problems. Many of these problems have multiple objectives, which leads to the need to obtain a set of optimal solutions, known as effective solutions. It has been found that using evolutionary algorithms is a highly effective way of finding multiple effective solutions in a single simulation run. · Comprehensive coverage of this growing area of research · Carefully introduces each algorithm with examples and in-depth discussion · Includes many applications to real-world problems, including engineering design and scheduling · Includes discussion of advanced topics and future research · Features exercises and solutions, enabling use as a course text or for self-study · Accessible to those with limited knowledge of classical multi-objective optimization and evolutionary algorithms The integrated presentation of theory, algorithms and examples will benefit those working and researching in the areas of optimization, optimal design and evolutionary computing. This text provides an excellent introduction to the use of evolutionary algorithms in multi-objective optimization, allowing use as a graduate course text or for self-study.

12,134 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2010
TL;DR: A brief overview of clustering is provided, well known clustering methods are summarized, the major challenges and key issues in designing clustering algorithms are discussed, and some of the emerging and useful research directions are pointed out.
Abstract: Organizing data into sensible groupings is one of the most fundamental modes of understanding and learning. As an example, a common scheme of scientific classification puts organisms into a system of ranked taxa: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, etc. Cluster analysis is the formal study of methods and algorithms for grouping, or clustering, objects according to measured or perceived intrinsic characteristics or similarity. Cluster analysis does not use category labels that tag objects with prior identifiers, i.e., class labels. The absence of category information distinguishes data clustering (unsupervised learning) from classification or discriminant analysis (supervised learning). The aim of clustering is to find structure in data and is therefore exploratory in nature. Clustering has a long and rich history in a variety of scientific fields. One of the most popular and simple clustering algorithms, K-means, was first published in 1955. In spite of the fact that K-means was proposed over 50 years ago and thousands of clustering algorithms have been published since then, K-means is still widely used. This speaks to the difficulty in designing a general purpose clustering algorithm and the ill-posed problem of clustering. We provide a brief overview of clustering, summarize well known clustering methods, discuss the major challenges and key issues in designing clustering algorithms, and point out some of the emerging and useful research directions, including semi-supervised clustering, ensemble clustering, simultaneous feature selection during data clustering, and large scale data clustering.

6,601 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A detailed review of the basic concepts of DE and a survey of its major variants, its application to multiobjective, constrained, large scale, and uncertain optimization problems, and the theoretical studies conducted on DE so far are presented.
Abstract: Differential evolution (DE) is arguably one of the most powerful stochastic real-parameter optimization algorithms in current use. DE operates through similar computational steps as employed by a standard evolutionary algorithm (EA). However, unlike traditional EAs, the DE-variants perturb the current-generation population members with the scaled differences of randomly selected and distinct population members. Therefore, no separate probability distribution has to be used for generating the offspring. Since its inception in 1995, DE has drawn the attention of many researchers all over the world resulting in a lot of variants of the basic algorithm with improved performance. This paper presents a detailed review of the basic concepts of DE and a survey of its major variants, its application to multiobjective, constrained, large scale, and uncertain optimization problems, and the theoretical studies conducted on DE so far. Also, it provides an overview of the significant engineering applications that have benefited from the powerful nature of DE.

4,321 citations

Book ChapterDOI
15 Sep 2008
TL;DR: Cluster analysis as mentioned in this paper is the formal study of algorithms and methods for grouping objects according to measured or perceived intrinsic characteristics, which is one of the most fundamental modes of understanding and learning.
Abstract: The practice of classifying objects according to perceived similarities is the basis for much of science. Organizing data into sensible groupings is one of the most fundamental modes of understanding and learning. As an example, a common scheme of scientific classification puts organisms in to taxonomic ranks: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, etc.). Cluster analysis is the formal study of algorithms and methods for grouping objects according to measured or perceived intrinsic characteristics. Cluster analysis does not use category labels that tag objects with prior identifiers, i.e., class labels. The absence of category information distinguishes cluster analysis (unsupervised learning) from discriminant analysis (supervised learning). The objective of cluster analysis is to simply find a convenient and valid organization of the data, not to establish rules for separating future data into categories.

4,255 citations

Book
30 Sep 2010
TL;DR: Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications explores the variety of techniques commonly used to analyze and interpret images and takes a scientific approach to basic vision problems, formulating physical models of the imaging process before inverting them to produce descriptions of a scene.
Abstract: Humans perceive the three-dimensional structure of the world with apparent ease. However, despite all of the recent advances in computer vision research, the dream of having a computer interpret an image at the same level as a two-year old remains elusive. Why is computer vision such a challenging problem and what is the current state of the art? Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications explores the variety of techniques commonly used to analyze and interpret images. It also describes challenging real-world applications where vision is being successfully used, both for specialized applications such as medical imaging, and for fun, consumer-level tasks such as image editing and stitching, which students can apply to their own personal photos and videos. More than just a source of recipes, this exceptionally authoritative and comprehensive textbook/reference also takes a scientific approach to basic vision problems, formulating physical models of the imaging process before inverting them to produce descriptions of a scene. These problems are also analyzed using statistical models and solved using rigorous engineering techniques Topics and features: structured to support active curricula and project-oriented courses, with tips in the Introduction for using the book in a variety of customized courses; presents exercises at the end of each chapter with a heavy emphasis on testing algorithms and containing numerous suggestions for small mid-term projects; provides additional material and more detailed mathematical topics in the Appendices, which cover linear algebra, numerical techniques, and Bayesian estimation theory; suggests additional reading at the end of each chapter, including the latest research in each sub-field, in addition to a full Bibliography at the end of the book; supplies supplementary course material for students at the associated website, http://szeliski.org/Book/. Suitable for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level course in computer science or engineering, this textbook focuses on basic techniques that work under real-world conditions and encourages students to push their creative boundaries. Its design and exposition also make it eminently suitable as a unique reference to the fundamental techniques and current research literature in computer vision.

4,146 citations