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Dingchang Zheng

Bio: Dingchang Zheng is an academic researcher from Coventry University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Korotkoff sounds & Blood pressure. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 165 publications receiving 1704 citations. Previous affiliations of Dingchang Zheng include Anglia Ruskin University & Royal Victoria Infirmary.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The DistEn would be a promising measure for prompt clinical examination of cardiovascular function and had relatively lower sensitivity to the predetermined parameters and showed stability even for quantifying the complexity of extremely short series.
Abstract: Complexity of heartbeat interval series is typically measured by entropy. Recent studies have found that sample entropy (SampEn) or fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn) quantifies essentially the randomness, which may not be uniformly identical to complexity. Additionally, these entropy measures are heavily dependent on the predetermined parameters and confined to data length. Aiming at improving the robustness of complexity assessment for short-term RR interval series, this study developed a novel measure—distribution entropy (DistEn). The DistEn took full advantage of the inherent information underlying the vector-to-vector distances in the state space by probability density estimation. Performances of DistEn were examined by theoretical data and experimental short-term RR interval series. Results showed that DistEn correctly ranked the complexity of simulated chaotic series and Gaussian noise series. The DistEn had relatively lower sensitivity to the predetermined parameters and showed stability even for quantifying the complexity of extremely short series. Analysis further showed that the DistEn indicated the loss of complexity in both healthy aging and heart failure patients (both p < 0.01), whereas neither the SampEn nor the FuzzyEn achieved comparable results (all p ≥ 0.05). This study suggested that the DistEn would be a promising measure for prompt clinical examination of cardiovascular function.

184 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Current works are summarized to suggest key directions for the development of future RR monitoring methodologies and the merits and limitations of each method are highlighted and discussed.
Abstract: Respiratory rate (RR) is an important physiological parameter whose abnormality has been regarded as an important indicator of serious illness. In order to make RR monitoring simple to perform, reliable and accurate, many different methods have been proposed for such automatic monitoring. According to the theory of respiratory rate extraction, methods are categorized into three modalities: extracting RR from other physiological signals, RR measurement based on respiratory movements, and RR measurement based on airflow. The merits and limitations of each method are highlighted and discussed. In addition, current works are summarized to suggest key directions for the development of future RR monitoring methodologies.

151 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new entropy measure, Fuzzy Measure Entropy (FuzzyMEn), is proposed for the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) signals and could be considered as a valid and reliable method for a clinical HRV application.

133 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study developed and compared three machine learning algorithms to estimate BPs using PPG only and revealed that the regression tree algorithm was the best approach with overall acceptable accuracy to ISO standard for BP device validation.
Abstract: Introduction. Blood pressure (BP) has been a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. BP measurement is one of the most useful parameters for early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. At present, BP measurement mainly relies on cuff-based techniques that cause inconvenience and discomfort to users. Although some of the present prototype cuffless BP measurement techniques are able to reach overall acceptable accuracies, they require an electrocardiogram (ECG) and a photoplethysmograph (PPG) that make them unsuitable for true wearable applications. Therefore, developing a single PPG-based cuffless BP estimation algorithm with enough accuracy would be clinically and practically useful. Methods. The University of Queensland vital sign dataset (online database) was accessed to extract raw PPG signals and its corresponding reference BPs (systolic BP and diastolic BP). The online database consisted of PPG waveforms of 32 cases from whom 8133 (good quality) signal segments (5 s for each) were extracted, preprocessed, and normalised in both width and amplitude. Three most significant pulse features (pulse area, pulse rising time, and width 25%) with their corresponding reference BPs were used to train and test three machine learning algorithms (regression tree, multiple linear regression (MLR), and support vector machine (SVM)). A 10-fold cross-validation was applied to obtain overall BP estimation accuracy, separately for the three machine learning algorithms. Their estimation accuracies were further analysed separately for three clinical BP categories (normotensive, hypertensive, and hypotensive). Finally, they were compared with the ISO standard for noninvasive BP device validation (average difference no greater than 5 mmHg and SD no greater than 8 mmHg). Results. In terms of overall estimation accuracy, the regression tree achieved the best overall accuracy for SBP (mean and SD of difference: −0.1 ± 6.5 mmHg) and DBP (mean and SD of difference: −0.6 ± 5.2 mmHg). MLR and SVM achieved the overall mean difference less than 5 mmHg for both SBP and DBP, but their SD of difference was >8 mmHg. Regarding the estimation accuracy in each BP categories, only the regression tree achieved acceptable ISO standard for SBP (−1.1 ± 5.7 mmHg) and DBP (−0.03 ± 5.6 mmHg) in the normotensive category. MLR and SVM did not achieve acceptable accuracies in any BP categories. Conclusion. This study developed and compared three machine learning algorithms to estimate BPs using PPG only and revealed that the regression tree algorithm was the best approach with overall acceptable accuracy to ISO standard for BP device validation. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the regression tree algorithm achieved acceptable measurement accuracy only in the normotensive category, suggesting that future algorithm development for BP estimation should be more specific for different BP categories.

121 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study quantitatively confirmed the effect of PPG measurement site on PPG waveform characteristics (including mean amplitude, Tp, Tn, and RI), providing scientific evidence for a better understanding of the PPGWaveform variations between different body sites.
Abstract: Introduction: Photoplethysmography (PPG) has been widely used to assess cardiovascular function. However, few studies have comprehensively investigated the effect of measurement site on PPG waveform characteristics. This study aimed to provide a quantitative comparison on this. Methods: Thirty six healthy subjects participated in this study. For each subject, PPG signals were sequentially recorded for 1 min from six different body sites (finger, wrist under (anatomically volar), wrist upper (dorsal), arm, earlobe, and forehead) under both normal and deep breathing patterns. For each body site under a certain breathing pattern, the mean amplitude was firstly derived from recorded PPG waveform which was then normalized to derive several waveform characteristics including the pulse peak time (Tp), dicrotic notch time (Tn), and the reflection index (RI). The effects of breathing pattern and measurement site on the waveform characteristics were finally investigated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc multiple comparisons. Results: Under both breathing patterns, the PPG measurements from the finger achieved the highest percentage of analyzable waveforms for extracting waveform characteristics. There were significant effects of breathing pattern on Tn and RI (larger Tn and smaller RI with deep breathing on average, both p < 0.03). The effects of measurement site on mean amplitude, Tp, Tn, and RI were significant (all p < 0.001). The key results were that, under both breathing patterns, the mean amplitude from finger PPG was significantly larger and its Tp and RI were significantly smaller than those from the other five sites (all p < 0.001, except p = 0.04 for the Tp of "wrist under"), and Tn was only significantly larger than that from the earlobe (both p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study has quantitatively confirmed the effect of PPG measurement site on PPG waveform characteristics (including mean amplitude, Tp, Tn, and RI), providing scientific evidence for a better understanding of the PPG waveform variations between different body sites.

97 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: Since 1980, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association have translated scientific evidence into clinical practice guidelines (guidelines) with recommendations to improve cardiovascular health.
Abstract: Since 1980, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) have translated scientific evidence into clinical practice guidelines (guidelines) with recommendations to improve cardiovascular health. In 2013, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Advisory

4,604 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
John F. Allen1
TL;DR: Photoplethysmography is a simple and low-cost optical technique that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue and is often used non-invasively to make measurements at the skin surface.
Abstract: Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a simple and low-cost optical technique that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue. It is often used non-invasively to make measurements at the skin surface. The PPG waveform comprises a pulsatile ('AC') physiological waveform attributed to cardiac synchronous changes in the blood volume with each heart beat, and is superimposed on a slowly varying ('DC') baseline with various lower frequency components attributed to respiration, sympathetic nervous system activity and thermoregulation. Although the origins of the components of the PPG signal are not fully understood, it is generally accepted that they can provide valuable information about the cardiovascular system. There has been a resurgence of interest in the technique in recent years, driven by the demand for low cost, simple and portable technology for the primary care and community based clinical settings, the wide availability of low cost and small semiconductor components, and the advancement of computer-based pulse wave analysis techniques. The PPG technology has been used in a wide range of commercially available medical devices for measuring oxygen saturation, blood pressure and cardiac output, assessing autonomic function and also detecting peripheral vascular disease. The introductory sections of the topical review describe the basic principle of operation and interaction of light with tissue, early and recent history of PPG, instrumentation, measurement protocol, and pulse wave analysis. The review then focuses on the applications of PPG in clinical physiological measurements, including clinical physiological monitoring, vascular assessment and autonomic function.

2,836 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses on the fundamentals of flexible pressure sensors, and subsequently on several critical concepts for the exploration of functional materials and optimization of sensing devices toward practical applications.
Abstract: By virtue of their wide applications in personal electronic devices and industrial monitoring, pressure sensors are attractive candidates for promoting the advancement of science and technology in modern society. Flexible pressure sensors based on organic materials, which combine unique advantages of flexibility and low-cost, have emerged as a highly active field due to their promising applications in artificial intelligence systems and wearable health care devices. In this review, we focus on the fundamentals of flexible pressure sensors, and subsequently on several critical concepts for the exploration of functional materials and optimization of sensing devices toward practical applications. Perspectives on self-powered, transparent and implantable pressure sensing devices are also examined to highlight the development directions in this exciting research field.

940 citations