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Domenico Lombardi

Bio: Domenico Lombardi is an academic researcher from University of Manchester. The author has contributed to research in topics: Liquefaction & Offshore wind power. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 52 publications receiving 948 citations. Previous affiliations of Domenico Lombardi include Edinburgh Napier University & University of Bristol.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a series of laboratory tests were conducted in which a scaled model wind turbine supported on a monopile in kaolin clay was subjected to between 32,000 and 172,000 cycles of horizontal loading and the changes in natural frequency and damping of the model were monitored.
Abstract: Offshore wind turbines supported on monopile foundations are dynamically sensitive because the overall natural frequencies of these structures are close to the different forcing frequencies imposed upon them. The structures are designed for an intended life of 25 to 30 years, but little is known about their long term behaviour. To study their long term behaviour, a series of laboratory tests were conducted in which a scaled model wind turbine supported on a monopile in kaolin clay was subjected to between 32,000 and 172,000 cycles of horizontal loading and the changes in natural frequency and damping of the model were monitored. The experimental results are presented using a non-dimensional framework based on an interpretation of the governing mechanics. The change in natural frequency was found to be strongly dependent on the shear strain level in the soil next to the pile. Practical guidance for choosing the diameter of monopile is suggested based on element test results using the concept of volumetric threshold shear strain.

269 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a series of small scaled tests (1:100, 1:150 and 1:200) of a complete National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind turbine model on three types of foundations: monopiles, symmetric tetrapod and asymmetric tripods were applied.
Abstract: Monopile foundations have been commonly used to support offshore wind turbine generators (WTGs), but this type of foundation encounters economic and technical limitations for larger WTGs in water depths exceeding 30 m. Offshore wind farm projects are increasingly turning to alternative multipod foundations (for example tetrapod, jacket and tripods) supported on shallow foundations to reduce the environmental effects of piling noise. However the characteristics of these foundations under dynamic loading or long term cyclic wind turbine loading are not fully understood. This paper summarises the results from a series of small scaled tests (1:100, 1:150 and 1:200) of a complete National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind turbine model on three types of foundations: monopiles, symmetric tetrapod and asymmetric tripod. The test bed used consists of either kaolin clay or sand and up to 1.4 million loading cycles were applied. The results showed that the multipod foundations (symmetric or asymmetric) exhibit two closely spaced natural frequencies corresponding to the rocking modes of vibration in two principle axes. Furthermore, the corresponding two spectral peaks change with repeated cycles of loading and they converge for symmetric tetrapods but not for asymmetric tripods. From the fatigue design point of view, the two spectral peaks for multipod foundations broaden the range of frequencies that can be excited by the broadband nature of the environmental loading (wind and wave) thereby impacting the extent of motions. Thus the system lifespan (number of cycles to failure) may effectively increase for symmetric foundations as the two peaks will tend to converge. However, for asymmetric foundations the system life may continue to be affected adversely as the two peaks will not converge. In this sense, designers should prefer symmetric foundations to asymmetric foundations.

142 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, scaling laws are derived for the design of such model tests for studying the long-term performance of offshore wind turbines, and the effectiveness of these chosen non-dimensional groups is investigated by carrying out controlled tests on a 1:100 scale offshore wind turbine.
Abstract: Offshore wind turbines are considered as an important element of the future energy infrastructure. There is currently a surge in the construction of such facilities in Europe, yet there is no track record of long-term performance of these structures. Offshore wind turbines are dynamically sensitive structures because of the very nature of the structural form (tall and slender) and the different types of dynamic and cyclic loading imposed on them. Lack of data concerning long-term performance indicates a need for detailed investigation to predict the future performance of such structures. Arguably this can be best carried out through small-scale well-controlled laboratory experimental investigation. In this paper, scaling laws are derived for the design of such model tests for studying the long-term performance. Non-dimensional groups that need to be preserved are identified while carrying out these tests. The effectiveness of these chosen non-dimensional groups is investigated by carrying out controlled tests on a 1:100 scale offshore wind turbine. Typical experimental data are presented.

103 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Apr 2013
TL;DR: In this paper, the results from a series of 1:100 scale tests of a V120 Vestas turbine supported on two types of foundation: monopiles and tetrapod suction caissons are presented.
Abstract: Offshore wind turbines are currently considered as a reliable source of renewable energy in the UK. These structures, owing to their slender nature, are dynamically sensitive at low frequencies, the first modal frequency of the system (less than 1 Hz) being very close to that of the excitation frequencies. The majority of operational offshore wind turbines situated in UK waters are founded on monopiles in water depths up to 30 m. For future development rounds where water depths are up to 70 m, alternative foundation arrangements are needed. To date there have been no long-term observations of the performance of these relatively novel structures. Monitoring of a limited number of offshore wind turbines has indicated a departure of the system dynamics from the design requirements. This paper summarises the results from a series of 1:100 scale tests of a V120 Vestas turbine supported on two types of foundation: monopiles and tetrapod suction caissons. The test bed used consisted of kaolin clay and sand. Up t...

99 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of liquefaction on modal parameters (frequency and damping) of pile-supported structures were investigated in a shaking table where the soil surrounding the pile liquefied because of seismic shaking.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of liquefaction on modal parameters (frequency and damping) of pile-supported structures. Four physical models, consisting of two single piles and two 2 × 2 pile groups, were tested in a shaking table where the soil surrounding the pile liquefied because of seismic shaking. The experimental results showed that the natural frequency of pile-supported structures may decrease considerably owing to the loss of lateral support offered by the soil to the pile. On the other hand, the damping ratio of structure may increase to values in excess of 20%. These findings have important design consequences: (a) for low-period structures, substantial reduction of spectral acceleration is expected; (b) during and after liquefaction, the response of the system may be dictated by the interactions of multiple loadings, that is, horizontal, axial and overturning moment, which were negligible prior to liquefaction; and (c) with the onset of liquefaction due to increased flexibility of pile-supported structure, larger spectral displacement may be expected, which in turn may enhance P-delta effects and consequently amplification of overturning moment. Practical implications for pile design are discussed.

76 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 2014

872 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a series of laboratory tests were conducted in which a scaled model wind turbine supported on a monopile in kaolin clay was subjected to between 32,000 and 172,000 cycles of horizontal loading and the changes in natural frequency and damping of the model were monitored.
Abstract: Offshore wind turbines supported on monopile foundations are dynamically sensitive because the overall natural frequencies of these structures are close to the different forcing frequencies imposed upon them. The structures are designed for an intended life of 25 to 30 years, but little is known about their long term behaviour. To study their long term behaviour, a series of laboratory tests were conducted in which a scaled model wind turbine supported on a monopile in kaolin clay was subjected to between 32,000 and 172,000 cycles of horizontal loading and the changes in natural frequency and damping of the model were monitored. The experimental results are presented using a non-dimensional framework based on an interpretation of the governing mechanics. The change in natural frequency was found to be strongly dependent on the shear strain level in the soil next to the pile. Practical guidance for choosing the diameter of monopile is suggested based on element test results using the concept of volumetric threshold shear strain.

269 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a simplified way of carrying out the design of monopiles based on necessary data (i.e. the least amount of data), namely site characteristics (wind speed at reference height, wind turbulence intensity, water depth, wave height and wave period), turbine characteristics (rated power, rated wind speed, rotor diameter, cut-in and cut-out speed, mass of the rotor-nacelle-assembly) and ground profile (soil stiffness variation with depth and soil stiffness at one diameter depth).
Abstract: A simplified design procedure for foundations of offshore wind turbines is often useful as it can provide the types and sizes of foundation required to carry out financial viability analysis of a project and can also be used for tender design. This paper presents a simplified way of carrying out the design of monopiles based on necessary data (i.e. the least amount of data), namely site characteristics (wind speed at reference height, wind turbulence intensity, water depth, wave height and wave period), turbine characteristics (rated power, rated wind speed, rotor diameter, cut-in and cut-out speed, mass of the rotor-nacelle-assembly) and ground profile (soil stiffness variation with depth and soil stiffness at one diameter depth). Other data that may be required for final detailed design are also discussed. A flowchart of the design process is also presented for visualisation of the rather complex multi-disciplinary analysis. Where possible, validation of the proposed method is carried out based on field data and references/guidance are also drawn from codes of practice and certification bodies. The calculation procedures that are required can be easily carried out either through a series of spreadsheets or simple hand calculations. An example problem emulating the design of foundations for London Array wind farm is taken to demonstrate the proposed calculation procedure. The data used for the calculations are obtained from publicly available sources and the example shows that the simplified method arrives at a similar foundation to the one actually used in the project.

220 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the present state of knowledge concerning geotechnical and structural issues affecting foundation types under consideration for the support structures of offshore wind turbines, and recommendations for future research and development are provided.
Abstract: Offshore wind is a source of clean, renewable energy of great potential value to the power industry in the context of a low carbon society. Rapid development of offshore wind energy depends on a good understanding of technical issues related to offshore wind turbines, which is spurring ongoing research and development programmes. Foundations of offshore wind turbines present one of the main challenges in offshore wind turbine design. This paper reviews the present state of knowledge concerning geotechnical and structural issues affecting foundation types under consideration for the support structures of offshore wind turbines, and provides recommendations for future research and development.

214 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jul 2016-Energies
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative study is carried out among well-known and widely-applied methods in MCDM, when applied to the reference problem of the selection of wind turbine support structures for a given deployment location.
Abstract: This paper presents an application and extension of multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods to account for stochastic input variables. More in particular, a comparative study is carried out among well-known and widely-applied methods in MCDM, when applied to the reference problem of the selection of wind turbine support structures for a given deployment location. Along with data from industrial experts, six deterministic MCDM methods are studied, so as to determine the best alternative among the available options, assessed against selected criteria with a view toward assigning confidence levels to each option. Following an overview of the literature around MCDM problems, the best practice implementation of each method is presented aiming to assist stakeholders and decision-makers to support decisions in real-world applications, where many and often conflicting criteria are present within uncertain environments. The outcomes of this research highlight that more sophisticated methods, such as technique for the order of preference by similarity to the ideal solution (TOPSIS) and Preference Ranking Organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE), better predict the optimum design alternative.

208 citations