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Donal G. Sinex

Other affiliations: Boys Town, Arizona State University
Bio: Donal G. Sinex is an academic researcher from Utah State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Inferior colliculus & Spiral ganglion. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 35 publications receiving 833 citations. Previous affiliations of Donal G. Sinex include Boys Town & Arizona State University.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Abnormalities in offspring included smaller size, shorter skull length and increased neonatal mortality, while the only functional deficit the authors could detect was a low incidence of transient hearing loss.
Abstract: Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause various diseases in offspring after congenital infection. The purpose of this study was to identify disease phenotypes in pups exposed to ZIKV in utero. Female interferon-α/β, -γ receptor knockout mice (AG129) were infected intraperitoneally with ZIKV 7.5 days’ post coitus (dpc). Viral RNA, antigen and infectious virus were detected in some, but not all, maternal and fetal tissues at various times during gestation. Fetuses of infected dams had significant intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which was more pronounced as females neared parturition. Pups born to infected dams were significantly smaller and had significantly shortened skull lengths, as determined by measurement with a caliper and by micro-CT analysis, as compared with age-matched controls. Growth rates of exposed pups after birth, however, was similar to sham-exposed offspring. Viral RNA was detected in pups of infected dams after birth. A lower survival rate was observed in neonates exposed to ZIKV in utero. A mortality rate of over 50%, attributed to consequences of ZIKV infection, occurred after birth in pups born to infected dams. A transient hearing loss was observed in some animals exposed to virus in utero. No motor deficits or cognitive deficits were detected using running wheel or viral paresis scoring assays. Abnormalities in offspring included smaller size, shorter skull length and increased neonatal mortality, while the only functional deficit we could detect was a low incidence of transient hearing loss.

88 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model is presented showing how patchy thalamocortical projections participate in the formation of tonotopic and binaural maps in primary auditory cortex.
Abstract: Several functional maps have been described in primary auditory cortex, including those related to frequency, tuning, latency, binaurality, and intensity. Many of these maps are arranged in a discontinuous or patchy manner. Similarly, thalamocortical projections arising from the ventral division of the medial geniculate body to the primary auditory cortex are also patchy. We used anterograde labeling and electrophysiological methods to examine the relationship between thalamocortical patches and auditory cortical maps. Biotinylated dextran-amine was deposited into physiologically characterized sites in the ventral division of the medial geniculate body of New Zealand white rabbits. Approximately 7 d later, the animal was again anesthetized and the ipsilateral auditory cortex was mapped with tungsten microelectrodes. Multi-unit physiological data were obtained for the following characteristics: best frequency (BF), binaurality, response type, latency, sharpness of tuning, and threshold. Immunocytochemical methods were used to reveal the injection site in the ventral division of the medial geniculate body as well as the anterogradely labeled thalamocortical afferents in the auditory cortex. In 86% of the cases (12 of 14), entry into a thalamocortical patch was associated with a marked change in physiological responses. A consistent BF and binaural class were usually observed within a patch. The patches appear to innervate distinct functional regions coding frequency and binaurality. A model is presented showing how patchy thalamocortical projections participate in the formation of tonotopic and binaural maps in primary auditory cortex.

61 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest that 'plastic' changes similar to those observed after long survival times in previous studies require little or no experience and occur within minutes to hours following the lesion.

61 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that responses of IC neurons are produced by convergence of auditory information across a wide range of AN fibers and that the acute "plastic" changes reported in previous studies occur within 1 h of an SG lesion.
Abstract: In previous studies, we demonstrated that acute lesions the spiral ganglion (SG), the cells of origin of the auditory nerve (AN), change the frequency organization of the inferior colliculus centra...

61 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Jan 2018-Viruses
TL;DR: It is shown that EV-D68 causes paralysis in mice, and that causation by muscle disease, with or without spinal cord disease, may help to resolve the controversy that the virus can cause paralysis, even if it cannot be identified in cerebrospinal fluid.
Abstract: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) caused a large outbreak in the summer and fall of 2014 in the United States. It causes serious respiratory disease, but causation of associated paralysis is controversial, because the virus is not routinely identified in cerebrospinal fluid. To establish clinical correlates with human disease, we evaluated EV-D68 infection in non-lethal paralysis mouse models. Ten-day-old mice lacking interferon responses were injected intraperitoneally with the virus. Paralysis developed in hindlimbs. After six weeks of paralysis, the motor neurons were depleted due to viral infection. Hindlimb muscles were also infected and degenerating. Even at the earliest stage of paralysis, muscles were still infected and were degenerating, in addition to presence of virus in the spinal cord. To model natural respiratory infection, five-day-old mice were infected intranasally with EV-D68. Two of the four infected mice developed forelimb paralysis. The affected limbs had muscle disease, but no spinal cord infection was detected. The unique contributions of this study are that EV-D68 causes paralysis in mice, and that causation by muscle disease, with or without spinal cord disease, may help to resolve the controversy that the virus can cause paralysis, even if it cannot be identified in cerebrospinal fluid.

53 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The picture that emerges is that temporal modulations are a critical stimulus attribute that assists us in the detection, discrimination, identification, parsing, and localization of acoustic sources and that this wide-ranging role is reflected in dedicated physiological properties at different anatomical levels.
Abstract: Joris, P. X., C. E. Schreiner, and A. Rees. Neural Processing of Amplitude-Modulated Sounds. Physiol Rev 84: 541–577, 2004; 10.1152/physrev.00029.2003.—Amplitude modulation (AM) is a temporal featu...

856 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This chapter reviews recent advancements in studies of vocal adaptations to interference by background noise and relates these to fundamental issues in sound perception in animals and humans.
Abstract: Publisher Summary Environmental noise can affect acoustic communication through limiting the broadcast area, or active space, of a signal by decreasing signal-to-noise ratios at the position of the receiver. At the same time, noise is ubiquitous in all habitats and is, therefore, likely to disturb animals, as well as humans, under many circumstances. However, both animals and humans have evolved diverse solutions to the background noise problem, and this chapter reviews recent advancements in studies of vocal adaptations to interference by background noise and relate these to fundamental issues in sound perception. The chapter starts with the discussion of sender's side by considering potential evolutionary shaping of species-specific signal characteristics and individual short‐term adjustments of signal features. Subsequently, it focuses on the receivers of signals and reviews their sensory capacities for signal detection, recognition, and discrimination and relates these issues to auditory scene analysis and the ecological concept of signal space. The data from studies on insects, anurans, birds, and mammals, including humans, and to a lesser extent available work on fish and reptiles is also discussed in the chapter.

845 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The purpose of this review is to highlight the types and functions of ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by laboratory rats and mice to enable researchers and animal care personnel to use vocalizations as an indicator of an animal's behavior and affect.
Abstract: Many laboratory rodents emit ultrasonic vocalizations. The purpose of this review is to highlight the types and functions of ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by laboratory rats and mice. Rats emit 3 types of ultrasonic vocalizations, depending on the animal's age, its environmental conditions, and its affective state. Rat pups emit a 40-kHz vocalization when they are separated from their mothers. Adult rats emit a 22-kHz vocalization in anticipation of inescapable aversive stimuli. These two types of vocalizations reflect a negative affective state of the animal. Rats produce a 50-kHz vocalization under nonaversive conditions, and these vocalizations reflect a positive affective state of the animal. Adult mice produce several different types of ultrasonic calls that can be classified as different syllables. Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations during nonaggressive interactions, particularly during mating behaviors, but these vocalizations are not indicators of negative or positive affect. Therefore, the function of ultrasonic vocalizations in adult mice is likely only to facilitate or inhibit social interactions. Understanding the types and functions of ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by laboratory rodents may enable researchers and animal care personnel to use vocalizations as an indicator of an animal's behavior and affect.

545 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This framework lays out a model of the cognitive modules involved in music perception, and incorporates information about the time course of activity of some of these modules, as well as research findings about where in the brain these modules might be located.

524 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work argues that stream formation depends primarily on temporal coherence between responses that encode various features of a sound source and postulates that only when attention is directed towards a particular feature do all other temporally coherent features of that source become bound together as a stream that is segregated from the incoherent features of other sources.

383 citations