Author

# Donald C. Cox

Other affiliations: Telcordia Technologies

Bio: Donald C. Cox is an academic researcher from Stanford University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Communication channel & Wireless network. The author has an hindex of 37, co-authored 117 publications receiving 17896 citations. Previous affiliations of Donald C. Cox include Telcordia Technologies.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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01 Feb 1975

TL;DR: An in-depth and practical guide, Microwave Mobile Communications will provide you with a solid understanding of the microwave propagation techniques essential to the design of effective cellular systems.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
IEEE Press is pleased to bring back into print this definitive text and reference covering all aspects of microwave mobile systems design. Encompassing ten years of advanced research in the field, this invaluable resource reviews basic microwave theory, explains how cellular systems work, and presents useful techniques for effective systems development. The return of this classic volume should be welcomed by all those seeking the original authoritative and complete source of information on this emerging technology. An in-depth and practical guide, Microwave Mobile Communications will provide you with a solid understanding of the microwave propagation techniques essential to the design of effective cellular systems.

9,064 citations

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TL;DR: A rapid synchronization method is presented for an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system using either a continuous transmission or a burst operation over a frequency-selective channel.

Abstract: A rapid synchronization method is presented for an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system using either a continuous transmission or a burst operation over a frequency-selective channel. The presence of a signal can be detected upon the receipt of just one training sequence of two symbols. The start of the frame and the beginning of the symbol can be found, and carrier frequency offsets of many subchannels spacings can be corrected. The algorithms operate near the Cramer-Rao lower bound for the variance of the frequency offset estimate, and the inherent averaging over many subcarriers allows acquisition at very low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs).

3,492 citations

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TL;DR: This work introduces two new methods to mitigate ICI in an OFDM system with coherent channel estimation that use a piece-wise linear model to approximate channel time-variations and finds a closed-form expression for the improvement in average signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) when these mitigation methods are applied for a narrowband time-Variant channel.

Abstract: Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is robust against frequency selective fading due to the increase of the symbol duration. However, for mobile applications channel time-variations in one OFDM symbol introduce intercarrier-interference (ICI) which degrades the performance. This becomes more severe as mobile speed, carrier frequency or OFDM symbol duration increases. As delay spread increases, symbol duration should also increase in order to maintain a near-constant channel in every frequency subband. Also, due to the high demand for bandwidth, there is a trend toward higher carrier frequencies. Therefore, to have an acceptable reception quality for the applications that experience high delay and Doppler spread, there is a need for ICI mitigation within one OFDM symbol. We introduce two new methods to mitigate ICI in an OFDM system with coherent channel estimation. Both methods use a piece-wise linear model to approximate channel time-variations. The first method extracts channel time-variations information from the cyclic prefix. The second method estimates these variations using the next symbol. We find a closed-form expression for the improvement in average signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) when our mitigation methods are applied for a narrowband time-variant channel. Finally, our simulation results show how these methods would improve the performance in a highly time-variant environment with high delay spread.

406 citations

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19 Jun 1997TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used two OFDM training symbols to obtain full synchronization in less than two data frames using a timing metric which recognizes the half-symbol symmetry of the first OPDM training symbol.

Abstract: A method and apparatus achieves rapid timing synchronization, carrier frequency synchronization, and sampling rate synchronization of a receiver to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signal. The method uses two OFDM training symbols to obtain full synchronization in less than two data frames. A first OFDM training symbol has only even-numbered sub-carriers, and substantially no odd-numbered sub-carriers, an arrangement that results in half-symbol symmetry. A second OFDM training symbol has even-numbered sub-carriers differentially modulated relative to those of the first OFDM training symbol by a predetermined sequence. Synchronization is achieved by computing metrics which utilize the unique properties of these two OFDM training symbols. Timing synchronization is determined by computing a timing metric which recognizes the half-symbol symmetry of the first OPDM training symbol. Carrier frequency offset estimation is performed in using the timing metric as well as a carrier frequency offset metric which peaks at the correct value of carrier frequency offset. Sampling rate offset estimation is performed by evaluating the slope of the locus of points of phase rotation due to sampling rate offset as a function of sub-carrier frequency number.

359 citations

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01 Apr 1987TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss limitations of the evolving approaches and consider objectives and approaches for providing more universal digital portable communications as an integrated part of telephone exchange networks, which can be accomplished by using demand-assigned radio links for the last thousand feet or so of telephone loops and sharing the remainder of the fixed distribution facilities.

Abstract: Providing voice and data communications to people away from their wireline telephones has become a major communication frontier. This frontier is being penetrated by evolving approaches to portable communications, e.g., cordless telephones, mobile radiotelephone, and radio paging. However, these approaches have many limitations; none can provide universal portable communications services. This paper discusses limitations of the evolving approaches and considers objectives and approaches for providing more universal digital portable communications as an integrated part of telephone exchange networks. These more universal communications could be accomplished by using demand-assigned radio links for the last thousand feet or so of telephone loops and sharing the remainder of the fixed distribution facilities. Fixed radio ports as integrated parts of telephone distribution networks could be placed throughout service regions. Efficient use of the radio spectrum could be insured by the planned reuse of radio frequencies throughout the regions. The severe multipath radio propagation environment within and around buildings that strongly influences the design of portable communications systems is described in the paper. System configurations and radio link techniques, that can provide reliable communications in the multipath environment, are discussed. Radio system calculations are illustrated for radio ports with 30-ft-high antennas in residential areas. The calculations indicate that radio link availability would be greater than 99 percent for 2000-ft port separations and 5-mW portable transmitters. Reuse of frequencies would require dividing the allocated frequency band into segments for use at adjacent ports. Calculations suggest that link availability in the cochannel interference environment would be greater than 99 percent, if 25 to 35 segments were used in residential areas.

355 citations

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AT&T

^{1}TL;DR: This paper presents a simple two-branch transmit diversity scheme that provides the same diversity order as maximal-ratio receiver combining (MRRC) with one transmit antenna, and two receive antennas.

Abstract: This paper presents a simple two-branch transmit diversity scheme. Using two transmit antennas and one receive antenna the scheme provides the same diversity order as maximal-ratio receiver combining (MRRC) with one transmit antenna, and two receive antennas. It is also shown that the scheme may easily be generalized to two transmit antennas and M receive antennas to provide a diversity order of 2M. The new scheme does not require any bandwidth expansion or any feedback from the receiver to the transmitter and its computation complexity is similar to MRRC.

13,706 citations

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Alcatel-Lucent

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the performance of using multi-element array (MEA) technology to improve the bit-rate of digital wireless communications and showed that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available.

Abstract: This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bit-rates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multi-element array (MEA) technology, that is processing the spatial dimension (not just the time dimension) to improve wireless capacities in certain applications. Specifically, we present some basic information theory results that promise great advantages of using MEAs in wireless LANs and building to building wireless communication links. We explore the important case when the channel characteristic is not available at the transmitter but the receiver knows (tracks) the characteristic which is subject to Rayleigh fading. Fixing the overall transmitted power, we express the capacity offered by MEA technology and we see how the capacity scales with increasing SNR for a large but practical number, n, of antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver.
We investigate the case of independent Rayleigh faded paths between antenna elements and find that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available. Compared to the baseline n = 1 case, which by Shannon‘s classical formula scales as one more bit/cycle for every 3 dB of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increase, remarkably with MEAs, the scaling is almost like n more bits/cycle for each 3 dB increase in SNR. To illustrate how great this capacity is, even for small n, take the cases n = 2, 4 and 16 at an average received SNR of 21 dB. For over 99% of the channels the capacity is about 7, 19 and 88 bits/cycle respectively, while if n = 1 there is only about 1.2 bit/cycle at the 99% level. For say a symbol rate equal to the channel bandwith, since it is the bits/symbol/dimension that is relevant for signal constellations, these higher capacities are not unreasonable. The 19 bits/cycle for n = 4 amounts to 4.75 bits/symbol/dimension while 88 bits/cycle for n = 16 amounts to 5.5 bits/symbol/dimension. Standard approaches such as selection and optimum combining are seen to be deficient when compared to what will ultimately be possible. New codecs need to be invented to realize a hefty portion of the great capacity promised.

10,526 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the design of channel codes for improving the data rate and/or the reliability of communications over fading channels using multiple transmit antennas and derive performance criteria for designing such codes under the assumption that the fading is slow and frequency nonselective.

Abstract: We consider the design of channel codes for improving the data rate and/or the reliability of communications over fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded by a channel code and the encoded data is split into n streams that are simultaneously transmitted using n transmit antennas. The received signal at each receive antenna is a linear superposition of the n transmitted signals perturbed by noise. We derive performance criteria for designing such codes under the assumption that the fading is slow and frequency nonselective. Performance is shown to be determined by matrices constructed from pairs of distinct code sequences. The minimum rank among these matrices quantifies the diversity gain, while the minimum determinant of these matrices quantifies the coding gain. The results are then extended to fast fading channels. The design criteria are used to design trellis codes for high data rate wireless communication. The encoding/decoding complexity of these codes is comparable to trellis codes employed in practice over Gaussian channels. The codes constructed here provide the best tradeoff between data rate, diversity advantage, and trellis complexity. Simulation results are provided for 4 and 8 PSK signal sets with data rates of 2 and 3 bits/symbol, demonstrating excellent performance that is within 2-3 dB of the outage capacity for these channels using only 64 state encoders.

7,105 citations

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TL;DR: It is illustrated that, under all scenarios studied, cooperation is beneficial in terms of increasing system throughput and cell coverage, as well as decreasing sensitivity to channel variations.

Abstract: For pt.I see ibid., p.1927-38. This is the second of a two-part paper on a new form of spatial diversity, where diversity gains are achieved through the cooperation of mobile users. Part I described the user cooperation concept and proposed a cooperation strategy for a conventional code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system. Part II investigates the cooperation concept further and considers practical issues related to its implementation. In particular, we investigate the optimal and suboptimal receiver design, and present performance analysis for the conventional CDMA implementation proposed in Part I. We also consider a high-rate CDMA implementation and a cooperation strategy when assumptions about the channel state information at the transmitters are relaxed. We illustrate that, under all scenarios studied, cooperation is beneficial in terms of increasing system throughput and cell coverage, as well as decreasing sensitivity to channel variations.

3,272 citations