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Dongwook Lee

Bio: Dongwook Lee is an academic researcher from Hongik University. The author has contributed to research in topics: PEDOT:PSS & Oxide. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 17 publications receiving 421 citations. Previous affiliations of Dongwook Lee include University of California, Santa Barbara & Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the role of strain on oxide electronic properties was identified, driven by the combination of modification of B O bond length and octahedral distortion in perovskites.

153 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that the combination of fluidic stimulus and 3D structure induces further improvement in gut functions, and provides insight into the effect of different tissue environment on gut cells.
Abstract: Current in vitro gut models lack physiological relevance, and various approaches have been taken to improve current cell culture models. For example, mimicking the three-dimensional (3D) tissue structure or fluidic environment has been shown to improve the physiological function of gut cells. Here, we incorporated a collagen scaffold that mimics the human intestinal villi into a microfluidic device, thus providing cells with both 3D tissue structure and fluidic shear. We hypothesized that the combined effect of 3D structure and fluidic shear may provide cells with adequate stimulus to induce further differentiation and improve physiological relevance. The physiological function of our ‘3D gut chip’ was assessed by measuring the absorptive permeability of the gut epithelium and activity of representative enzymes, as well as morphological evaluation. Our results suggest that the combination of fluidic stimulus and 3D structure induces further improvement in gut functions. Our work provides insight into the effect of different tissue environment on gut cells.

150 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The oCVD PEDOT thin films with ultrahigh electrical conductivity and high carrier mobility show great promise for novel high-speed organic electronics with low energy consumption and better charge carrier transport.
Abstract: Air-stable, lightweight, and electrically conductive polymers are highly desired as the electrodes for next-generation electronic devices However, the low electrical conductivity and low carrier mobility of polymers are the key bottlenecks that limit their adoption We demonstrate that the key to addressing these limitations is to molecularly engineer the crystallization and morphology of polymers We use oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) and hydrobromic acid treatment as an effective tool to achieve such engineering for conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) We demonstrate PEDOT thin films with a record-high electrical conductivity of 6259 S/cm and a remarkably high carrier mobility of 1845 cm2 V−1 s−1 by inducing a crystallite-configuration transition using oCVD Subsequent theoretical modeling reveals a metallic nature and an effective reduction of the carrier transport energy barrier between crystallized domains in these thin films To validate this metallic nature, we successfully fabricate PEDOT-Si Schottky diode arrays operating at 1356 MHz for radio frequency identification (RFID) readers, demonstrating wafer-scale fabrication compatible with conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology The oCVD PEDOT thin films with ultrahigh electrical conductivity and high carrier mobility show great promise for novel high-speed organic electronics with low energy consumption and better charge carrier transport

130 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A microfluidic gut-liver co-culture chip is developed that aims to reproduce the first-pass metabolism of oral drugs and suggests the possibility of reproducing the human PK profile on a chip, contributing to accurate prediction of pharmacological effect of drugs.
Abstract: Accurate prediction of first-pass metabolism is essential for improving the time and cost efficiency of drug development process. Here, we have developed a microfluidic gut-liver co-culture chip that aims to reproduce the first-pass metabolism of oral drugs. This chip consists of two separate layers for gut (Caco-2) and liver (HepG2) cell lines, where cells can be co-cultured in both 2D and 3D forms. Both cell lines were maintained well in the chip, verified by confocal microscopy and measurement of hepatic enzyme activity. We investigated the PK profile of paracetamol in the chip, and corresponding PK model was constructed, which was used to predict PK profiles for different chip design parameters. Simulation results implied that a larger absorption surface area and a higher metabolic capacity are required to reproduce the in vivo PK profile of paracetamol more accurately. Our study suggests the possibility of reproducing the human PK profile on a chip, contributing to accurate prediction of pharmacological effect of drugs.

48 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel microfluidic chip is developed that enables gravity‐induced, unidirectional flow by using a bypass channel with geometry different from the main channel to enable recirculation, which is somewhat different from physiological blood flow.
Abstract: Perfusion flow is one of the essential elements and advantages of organ-on-a-chip technology. For example, microfluidics have enabled implementation of perfusion flow and recapitulation of fluidic environment for vascular endothelial cells. The most prevalent method of implementing flow in a chip is to use a pump, which requires elaborate manipulation and complex connections, and accompanies a large amount of dead volume. Previously we devised a gravity-induced flow system which does not require tubing connections, but this method results in bidirectional flow to enable recirculation, which is somewhat different from physiological blood flow. Here, we have developed a novel microfluidic chip that enables gravity-induced, unidirectional flow by using a bypass channel with geometry different from the main channel. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured inside the chip and the effect of flow direction was examined. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 35: e2701, 2019.

33 citations


Cited by
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01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

29,323 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article summarized the recent progress in understanding OER mechanisms, which include the conventional adsorbate evolution mechanism (AEM) and lattice-oxygen-mediated mechanism (LOM) from both theoretical and experimental aspects, and introduced strategies to reduce overpotential.
Abstract: Electricity-driven water splitting can facilitate the storage of electrical energy in the form of hydrogen gas. As a half-reaction of electricity-driven water splitting, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the major bottleneck due to the sluggish kinetics of this four-electron transfer reaction. Developing low-cost and robust OER catalysts is critical to solving this efficiency problem in water splitting. The catalyst design has to be built based on the fundamental understanding of the OER mechanism and the origin of the reaction overpotential. In this article, we summarize the recent progress in understanding OER mechanisms, which include the conventional adsorbate evolution mechanism (AEM) and lattice-oxygen-mediated mechanism (LOM) from both theoretical and experimental aspects. We start with the discussion on the AEM and its linked scaling relations among various reaction intermediates. The strategies to reduce overpotential based on the AEM and its derived descriptors are then introduced. To further reduce the OER overpotential, it is necessary to break the scaling relation of HOO* and HO* intermediates in conventional AEM to go beyond the activity limitation of the volcano relationship. Strategies such as stabilization of HOO*, proton acceptor functionality, and switching the OER pathway to LOM are discussed. The remaining questions on the OER and related perspectives are also presented at the end.

1,107 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review aims to comprehensively summarize the state-of-the-art strategies for the realization of high-performance thermoelectric materials and devices by establishing the links between synthesis, structural characteristics, properties, underlying chemistry and physics.
Abstract: The long-standing popularity of thermoelectric materials has contributed to the creation of various thermoelectric devices and stimulated the development of strategies to improve their thermoelectric performance. In this review, we aim to comprehensively summarize the state-of-the-art strategies for the realization of high-performance thermoelectric materials and devices by establishing the links between synthesis, structural characteristics, properties, underlying chemistry and physics, including structural design (point defects, dislocations, interfaces, inclusions, and pores), multidimensional design (quantum dots/wires, nanoparticles, nanowires, nano- or microbelts, few-layered nanosheets, nano- or microplates, thin films, single crystals, and polycrystalline bulks), and advanced device design (thermoelectric modules, miniature generators and coolers, and flexible thermoelectric generators). The outline of each strategy starts with a concise presentation of their fundamentals and carefully selected examples. In the end, we point out the controversies, challenges, and outlooks toward the future development of thermoelectric materials and devices. Overall, this review will serve to help materials scientists, chemists, and physicists, particularly students and young researchers, in selecting suitable strategies for the improvement of thermoelectrics and potentially other relevant energy conversion technologies.

951 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The electronic structure of the perovskite LaCoO3 for different spin states of Co ions was calculated in the local-density approximation LDA+U approach and shows that Co 3d states of t(2g) symmetry form narrow bands which could easily localize, while e(g) orbitals, due to their strong hybridization with the oxygen 2p states, form a broad sigma* band.
Abstract: The electronic structure of the perovskite LaCoO$_3$ for different spin states of Co ions was calculated in the LDA+U approach. The ground state was found to be a nonmagnetic insulator with Co ions in a low-spin state. Somewhat higher in energy we found two intermediate-spin states followed by a high-spin state at significantly higher energy. The calculation results show that Co 3$d$ states of $t_{2g}$ symmetry form narrow bands which could easily localize whilst $e_g$ orbitals, due to their strong hybridization with the oxygen 2$p$ states, form a broad $\sigma^*$ band. With the increase of temperature which is simulated by the corresponding increase of the lattice parameter, the transition from the low- to intermediate-spin states occurs. This intermediate-spin (occupation $t_{2g}^5e_g^1$) can develop an orbital ordering which can account for the nonmetallic nature of LaCoO$_3$ at 90 K$<$T$<$500 K. Possible explanations of the magnetic behavior and gradual insulating-metal transition are suggested.

531 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Intestine Chip may be useful as a research tool for applications where normal intestinal function is crucial, including studies of metabolism, nutrition, infection, and drug pharmacokinetics, as well as personalized medicine.
Abstract: Here we describe a method for fabricating a primary human Small Intestine-on-a-Chip (Intestine Chip) containing epithelial cells isolated from healthy regions of intestinal biopsies. The primary epithelial cells are expanded as 3D organoids, dissociated, and cultured on a porous membrane within a microfluidic device with human intestinal microvascular endothelium cultured in a parallel microchannel under flow and cyclic deformation. In the Intestine Chip, the epithelium forms villi-like projections lined by polarized epithelial cells that undergo multi-lineage differentiation similar to that of intestinal organoids, however, these cells expose their apical surfaces to an open lumen and interface with endothelium. Transcriptomic analysis also indicates that the Intestine Chip more closely mimics whole human duodenum in vivo when compared to the duodenal organoids used to create the chips. Because fluids flowing through the lumen of the Intestine Chip can be collected continuously, sequential analysis of fluid samples can be used to quantify nutrient digestion, mucus secretion and establishment of intestinal barrier function over a period of multiple days in vitro. The Intestine Chip therefore may be useful as a research tool for applications where normal intestinal function is crucial, including studies of metabolism, nutrition, infection, and drug pharmacokinetics, as well as personalized medicine.

479 citations