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Doug Magnuson

Bio: Doug Magnuson is an academic researcher from University of Victoria. The author has contributed to research in topics: Negotiation & Child and Youth Care. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 11 publications receiving 89 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that the strongest empirical evidence is for adoption of the second perspective that aims to develop integrative policies that reduce the intersecting social inequalities sex workers face in their struggle to make a living and be included as equals.
Abstract: Prostitution, payment for the exchange of sexual services, is deemed a major social problem in most countries around the world today, with little to no consensus on how to address it. In this Target Article, we unpack what we discern as the two primary positions that undergird academic thinking about the relationship between inequality and prostitution: (1) prostitution is principally an institution of hierarchal gender relations that legitimizes the sexual exploitation of women by men, and (2) prostitution is a form of exploited labor where multiple forms of social inequality (including class, gender, and race) intersect in neoliberal capitalist societies. Our main aims are to: (a) examine the key claims and empirical evidence available to support or refute each perspective; (b) outline the policy responses associated with each perspective; and (c) evaluate which responses have been the most effective in reducing social exclusion of sex workers in societal institutions and everyday practices. While the overall trend globally has been to accept the first perspective on the "prostitution problem" and enact repressive policies that aim to protect prostituted women, punish male buyers, and marginalize the sex sector, we argue that the strongest empirical evidence is for adoption of the second perspective that aims to develop integrative policies that reduce the intersecting social inequalities sex workers face in their struggle to make a living and be included as equals. We conclude with a call for more robust empirical studies that use strategic comparisons of the sex sector within and across regions and between sex work and other precarious occupations.

74 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article analyzed descriptive quantitative data and open-ended interviews with 130 street-involved youth aged 14-18 in Victoria, Canada, to investigate the perceived roles and supportive functions of their most valued social relationships.
Abstract: Recent studies suggest that street-involved youth may have more robust and diverse social networks than previously thought However, the supports offered by their social relationships have not been studied in detail We analyzed descriptive quantitative data and open-ended interviews with 130 street-involved youth aged 14–18 in Victoria, Canada, to investigate the perceived roles and supportive functions of their most-valued social relationships Our results show that most participants were embedded in supportive social relationships For a substantial minority, these were familial and friendship ties forged prior to street involvement These off-street relationships were often viewed as reliable and stable long-term sources of social support, including emotional, instrumental and informational support, particularly in times of need This was the case despite perceived relational difficulties and limited face-to-face contact Approximately half located themselves primarily within new street-based

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe how child protection professionals orient to the work can be described as a style, and in the two teams reported on here, a style is emerging that is characterized by reaching for and inviting ongoing negotiation with families, with allied professionals and colleagues.
Abstract: How child protection professionals orient to the work can be described as a style, and in the two teams reported on here, a style is emerging that is characterized by reaching for and inviting ongoing negotiation with families, with allied professionals and colleagues, and a reflexivity that is the result of the attention focused on the professional and the need to continually defend the work and explain to others one's point of view. Negotiation is a political concept that blends the reality of State authority with the practice of taking seriously the goals and interests of clients as well as the goals and interests of allied professionals. For these teams, this practice is rooted in an identity of service to the client, the importance of the protection of children and long-standing motivations common to the helping professions.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that a large proportion of youth who become street-involved have experience in foster care, and a sample of 92 street involved youth, aged 14-18 years, all had foster care experience.
Abstract: A large proportion of youth who become street-involved have experience in foster care, and our sample of 92 street-involved youth, aged 14–18 years, all had foster care experience. We report on (i) instability of guardians and home from birth to street involvement; (ii) the connection between perceptions about foster care and measures of well-being; and (iii) the implications of these findings for understanding street-involved youth and the role of foster care in their life. The average number of transitions per youth from birth to mid-teens was nine. Youth with experience in permanent care first lived away from biological parents at age 8.5 years, and for those with temporary care experience, it was age 10 years. Foster care was one of many living situations and one of several sources of caregivers. If participants were satisfied with foster care, they were more likely to be currently hopeful and happy. Participants who experienced positive influences from at least one long-term caregiver tended to have other positive caregiver experiences, and those with negative influences were more likely to also have a positive relationship with a female caregiver. Foster care was one of several ‘way stations’ in their lives, one whose meaning needs further study.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that the most robust empirical evidence supports the idea that prostitution is principally sex work, and called for more rigorous studies within the sex sector and comparative studies of sex work to other personal service occupations.
Abstract: In our Target Article, “The Prostitution Problem”: Claims, Evidence, and Policy Outcomes” (Benoit, Smith, Jansson, Healey, & Magnuson, 2018b), we summarized recent scholarship on prostitution/sex work, attempting to distill the main debates and the outcomes of Criminal Code and other legal policies executed in different countries to address the so-called “prostitution problem.” We differentiated two main positions that captivate academic scholarship seeking to understand the situation of people who engage in sexual activity in exchange for payment: (1) prostitution is principally an institution of hierarchal gender relations that legitimizes the sexual exploitation of prostituted women by male buyers, and (2) sex work is a form of human labor where multiple forms of social inequality (including class, gender, and race) intersect in neoliberal capitalist societies. Those who champion the perspective that prostitution is principally an institution of hierarchal gender relations make numerous claims, three of which we underscored in our review: (1) prostitution is a patriarchal gender relation; (2) prostitution entails the selling of women’s sexual self, not their human labor; and (3) prostitution and trafficking are so closely linked that they are inseparable. Those who contend prostitution is fundamentally a problem of intersecting social inequalities claim that: (1) prostitution is one of the occupational choices available for precarious workers in neoliberal capitalist societies; (2) men and trans sex workers face many of the same benefits and challenges as women in sex work; and (3) prostitution and sex trafficking are substantively different phenomena. The idea that prostitution is principally an institution of hierarchical gender relations is popular, but we argued that the most robust empirical evidence supports the idea that prostitution is principally sex work. We called for more rigorous studies within the sex sector and comparative studies of sex work to other personal service occupations. We also called for more research on human trafficking (not just sex trafficking), framed within the broader perspective of global social inequality. We were pleased to read the eight Commentaries on our Target Article. We gratefully acknowledge the time and effort the authors made in assessing our contribution and appreciate the wide assortment of comments by researchers from different disciplines and based on research in several countries. Six of the eight commentaries (Abel, 2018; Foley, 2018; McMillan & Worth, 2019; Shaver, 2018; Vanwesenbeeck, 2018; Vijayakumar, Panchanadeswaran, & Chacko, 2018) broadly agreed with our conclusions, while offering additional empirical evidence, theoretical nuance, or other insights. Two commentaries (Coy, Smiley & Tyler, 2018; Moran & Farley, 2019) challenged our conclusions on a number of counts, most seriously that prostitution is not work and that prostitution and sexual exploitation/sex trafficking overlap in fundamental ways. Some commentators also question the utility of further research on this controversial topic. In the spirit of ongoing discussion, we focus on the main points of agreement and contention among the commentaries. We begin with three commentaries that offer additional empirical evidence for the second perspective we outlined in our Target Article.

8 citations


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Journal Article
TL;DR: Prospect Theory led cognitive psychology in a new direction that began to uncover other human biases in thinking that are probably not learned but are part of the authors' brain’s wiring.
Abstract: In 1974 an article appeared in Science magazine with the dry-sounding title “Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases” by a pair of psychologists who were not well known outside their discipline of decision theory. In it Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman introduced the world to Prospect Theory, which mapped out how humans actually behave when faced with decisions about gains and losses, in contrast to how economists assumed that people behave. Prospect Theory turned Economics on its head by demonstrating through a series of ingenious experiments that people are much more concerned with losses than they are with gains, and that framing a choice from one perspective or the other will result in decisions that are exactly the opposite of each other, even if the outcomes are monetarily the same. Prospect Theory led cognitive psychology in a new direction that began to uncover other human biases in thinking that are probably not learned but are part of our brain’s wiring.

4,351 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The authors examines the social construction of sex trafficking and prostitution in the discourse of leading activists and organizations within the crusade, and concludes that the central claims are problematic, unsubstantiated, or demonstrably false.
Abstract: French Abstract: La question de la traite sexuelle est devenue de plus en plus politisee ces dernieres annees suite aux efforts d'une croisade morale influente. Cet article examine la fabrication sociale de la traite sexuelle (et plus generalement de la prostitution) dans le discours des principaux militants et des organisations membres de cette croisade, et conclut que ses allegations principales sont problematiques, non fondees ou demontrablement fausses. L'analyse met en lumiere l'adoption et l'institutionnalisation croissantes de l’ideologie de la croisade dans la politique et la pratique du gouvernement americain.English Abstract: The issue of sex trafficking has become increasingly politicized in recent years due to the efforts of an influential moral crusade. This article examines the social construction of sex trafficking (and prostitution more generally) in the discourse of leading activists and organizations within the crusade, and concludes that the central claims are problematic, unsubstantiated, or demonstrably false. The analysis documents the increasing endorsement and institutionalization of crusade ideology in U.S. government policy and practice.

439 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Whitbeck and Hoyt as mentioned in this paper used a life-course developmental lens to frame and capture the developmental trajectories of these particular runaway and homeless youth, and found that these youth suffer critical developmental consequences from problems such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse.
Abstract: Nowhere to Grow: Homeless and Runaway Adolescents and Their Families. Les B. Whitbeck & Dan R. Hoyt. New York: Aldine De Gruyter. 1999. 216 pp. ISBN 0-202-30584-8. $41.95 cloth, $23.95 paper. In their book, Nowhere to Grow: Homeless and Runaway Adolescents and Their Families, Les Whitbeck and Dan Hoyt help the reader understand the complexities of society's "forgotten children." Drawing on their study of more than 600 runaway and homeless adolescents, the authors utilize extensive quantitative and rich qualitative data to tell the stories of these youth. What emerges is a detailed explanation of the process by which these adolescents move from their family of origin to institutional settings and gangs or city streets. As Whitbeck and Hoyt observe, "Homelessness for young people doesn't happen all at once. Rather, there is a process of marginalization created by forced early maturation" (p. 66). It is this attention to "process" that is the book's strength. Divided into four parts (Society's Forgotten Children, The Family Lives of Runaway and Homeless Adolescents, Taking Chances: Adolescents on Their Own, and Nowhere to Grow: The Developmental Consequences of Running Away), the book uses a life-course developmental lens to frame and capture the developmental trajectories of these particular runaway and homeless youth. This lens views the process of development as a self-perpetuated series of events. When applied to the youth interviewed for this study, the chain of events leading to early independence originates within the families from which they leave. Multiple life transitions, such as frequent changes in caretakers and residences, prompt children to become independent change agents who attempt to gain more control over their lives by leaving home. The resulting life on the streets is one of survival as these teens turn to conventional (e.g., borrowing money) and deviant (e.g., dealing drugs) subsistence strategies and social networks of similarly troubled teens. Without the benefit of positive adult influence, supervision, and resources, these youth suffer critical developmental consequences from problems such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse. Unlike previous studies, the use of a life course developmental approach to their work enables Whitbeck and Hoyt to "peel back the layers" of this social problem and give serious consideration to the developmental consequences of running away and homelessness. For example, although many of these youth suffer particular emotional or psychological problems attributable to experiences in their family of origin, it is their hard-luck life on the streets, over time, that exacerbates existing disorders or creates new ones. According to Whitbeck and Hoyt, an accurate assessment of runaway and homeless adolescents' mental health must include a distinction between those stressors associated with the youth's family of origin and those stemming from a vulnerable life on the streets. The result of this particular conceptualization is detailed information presented in the book about the many varied predictors of runaway and homeless youths' behavior. The authors argue that knowing the differences between the sources of mental health issues and their developmental progression ultimately will lead to better intervention and treatment strategies. In addition to their unique conceptualization of mental health, this study has several exceptional design characteristics that distinguish it from other studies of similar populations. …

196 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The COVID-19 pandemic is causing one of the world’s largest economic crises and is affecting the well-being of individuals; some stress factors, such as domestic isolation, lack of movement and social contact, loss of jobs and economic problems, supply bottlenecks, limited health and psychosocial care, and fear of and confrontation with infection and death, characterize life worldwide during the pandemic.
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first broke out in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has spread rapidly worldwide since the beginning of 2020. This new infectious disease is associated with a variety of symptoms and, in severe cases, leads to organ failure and death. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) (2020a) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic. Since then, the primary goal has been to slow down the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which is responsible for the disease and is easily transmitted by direct and contact transmission. To this end, travel restrictions, curfews, and contact bans have been imposed in numerous countries around the world, and all nonessential public institutions have been closed (COVID-19 shutdown or lockdown). Most political, cultural, religious, and sporting events have been canceled or postponed. People are being asked to wash their hands regularly and wear protective masks, to keep a minimum distance of 1.5 meters away from other human beings and to stay at home if possible (i.e., social distancing and self-isolation). By Spring 2020, more than half of the world population was in lockdown (Sandford, 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic is causing one of the world’s largest economic crises and is affecting the well-being of individuals; some stress factors, such as domestic isolation, lack of movement and social contact, loss of jobs and economic problems, supply bottlenecks, limited health and psychosocial care, and fear of and confrontation with infection and death, characterize life worldwide during the pandemic, but with great differences depending on the respective geographical region, socioeconomic situation, and personal circumstances. Sexuality‐Related Effects of the COVID‐19 Pandemic

127 citations