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Dougal Drysdale

Bio: Dougal Drysdale is an academic researcher from University of Edinburgh. The author has contributed to research in topics: Poison control & Flame spread. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 56 publications receiving 1327 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of slope on the rate of upward spread of flame over a combustible solid was investigated and a clear difference between the mechanisms of spread for thin and thick fuels was found to occur at an inclination of 15-20°.

99 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a critical mass flow of volatiles sufficient to support a nascent flame capable of losing heat to the surface without the flame temperature being reduced to a value below which the flame is extinguished.

97 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used a Bayesian methodology to estimate the effect of forced longitudinal ventilation on heat release rate (HRR) for fires in tunnels and investigated the behavior of car and heavy goods vehicle (HGV) fires with a range of forced ventilation velocities.

95 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that the heat release rate of a fire in a tunnel is influenced primarily by the width of a tunnel; a fire will tend to have a higher heat release ratio in a narrow tunnel rather than in a wide tunnel.
Abstract: It has occasionally been observed that fires in tunnels appear to be significantly more severe than fires in the open air. A literature review has been carried out, comparing heat release data from fires in tunnels with heat release data from similar fires in the open air. A Bayesian methodology has been used to investigate the geometrical factors that have the greatest influence on heat release rate. It is shown that the heat release rate of a fire in a tunnel is influenced primarily by the width of a tunnel; a fire will tend to have a higher heat release rate in a narrow tunnel rather than in a wide tunnel. The observed relationship between heat release rate and tunnel width is presented. Results from a study investigating the variation of heat release rate with ventilation velocity for fires in tunnels are also presented. A method for making realistic estimates of the heat release rates of fires in tunnels, based on these results, is presented.

84 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the ignition times of six common thermoplastics by exposing horizontal samples (65 times, 65 times; 65 times, 6 mm thick) to irradiance levels in the range 10 −40 kw m−2.
Abstract: The Piloted ignition of six common thermoplastics has been studied by exposing horizontal samples (65 times; 65 times; 6 mm thick) to irradiance levels in the range 10–40 kw m−2. Fine thermocouples were attached to the exposed face and allowed the surface temperature to be monitored continuously. Times to sustained ignition from a small pilot flame and the corresponding surface temperature were recorded. Within experimental error, ignition temperatures showed no systematic dependence on surface area when this was reduced to ca 20 mm square. Times to ignition were dependent not only on radiant intensity but also on the spectral characteristics of the source.

71 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide guidance in the use and interpretation of cone calorimetry for those directly involved with such measurements, and discuss the fire scenario with respect to applied heat flux, length scale, temperature, ventilation, anaerobic pyrolysis and set-up represented by the cone.
Abstract: There is little consensus within the fire science community on interpretation of cone calorimeter data, but there is a significant need to screen new flammability modified materials using the cone calorimeter. This article is the result of several discussions aiming to provide guidance in the use and interpretation of cone calorimetry for those directly involved with such measurements. This guidance is essentially empirical, and is not intended to replace the comprehensive scientific studies that already exist. The guidance discusses the fire scenario with respect to applied heat flux, length scale, temperature, ventilation, anaerobic pyrolysis and set-up represented by the cone calorimeter. The fire properties measured in the cone calorimeter are discussed, including heat release rate and its peak, the mass loss and char yield, effective heat of combustion and combustion efficiency, time to ignition and CO and smoke production together with deduced quantities such as FIGRA and MARHE. Special comments are made on the use of the cone calorimeter relating to sample thickness, textiles, foams and intumescent materials, and the distance of the cone heater from the sample surface. Finally, the relationship between cone calorimetry data and other tests is discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1,116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors highlight the ecological impacts of using conventional flame retardants, thereby signifying the necessity to use eco-friendly agents, and explore the use of various nanofillers for this purpose, compare their performance with traditional systems, provide insights into different testing standards and combustion mechanisms, modelling aspects of the combustion behavior, and identify novel approaches that could be considered for meeting the fire safety standards with ecofriendly materials.

488 citations

20 Dec 2007
TL;DR: In this paper, a generalized model for simulating pyrolysis, gasification, and burning of a wide range of solid fuels encountered in fires is presented, which can be applied to noncharring and charring solids, composites, intumescent coatings and smolder in porous media.
Abstract: This dissertation presents the derivation, numerical implementation, and verification/validation of a generalized model that can be used to simulate the pyrolysis, gasification, and burning of a wide range of solid fuels encountered in fires. The model can be applied to noncharring and charring solids, composites, intumescent coatings, and smolder in porous media. Care is taken to make the model as general as possible, allowing the user to determine the appropriate level of complexity to include in a simulation. The model considers a user–specified number of gas phase and condensed phase species, each having its own temperature–dependent thermophysical properties. Any number of heterogeneous (gas–solid) or homogeneous (solid–solid or gas-gas) reactions can be specified. Both in–depth radiation transfer through semi–transparent media and radiation transport across pores are considered. Volume change (surface regression or swelling/intumescence) is handled by allowing the size of grid points to change as dictated by mass conservation. All volatiles generated inside the solid escape to the ambient with no resistance to mass transfer unless a pressure solver is invoked; the resultant flow of volatiles is then calculated according to Darcy’s law. A gas phase convective–diffusive solver can be invoked to determine the composition of the volatiles. Oxidative pyrolysis is simulated by modeling diffusion of oxygen from the ambient into the pyrolyzing solid where it may participate in reactions. Consequently, the mass flux and composition of volatiles escaping from the solid can be calculated. To aid in determining the required input parameters, the model is coupled to a genetic algorithm that can be used to estimate the required input parameters from bench–scale fire tests or thermogravimetric analysis. Standalone model predictions are compared to experimental data for the thermo– oxidative decomposition of non–charring and charring solids, as well as the gasification and swelling of an intumescent coating and forward smolder propagation in polyurethane foam. Genetic algorithm optimization is used to extract the required input parameters from the experimental data, and the optimized model calculations agree well with the experimental data. Blind simulations indicate that the predictive capabilities of the model are generally good, particularly considering the complexity of the problems simulated.

312 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a series of tests in a model tunnel were carried out with longitudinal ventilation under different fire conditions Wood cribs were used to simulate the fire source, which was designed to correspond to a scaled-down HGV (heavy goods vehicle) fire load.

296 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1938-Nature
TL;DR: Bone, Newitt and Townend as mentioned in this paper published a comprehensive monograph "Flame and Combustion in Gases" by Prof. W. de C. Ellis and W. A. Townend.
Abstract: ELEVEN years ago appeared the comprehensive monograph entitled “Flame and Combustion in Gases” by Prof. W. A. Bone and D. T. A. Townend, followed a year or two later by “Gaseous Combustion at High Pressures” by Bone, Newitt and Townend. Except for a small volume on "Flame"by 0. C. de C. Ellis and W. A. Kirkby (1936), the subject has not since been treated as a whole in English, until the recent appearance of the work by Bernard Lewis and G. von Elbe now under review. Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases By Dr. Bernard Lewis Dr. Guenther von Elbe. (The Cambridge Series of Physical Chemistry.) Pp. xiv + 415. (Cambridge: At the University Press, 1938.) 21s. net.

290 citations