E. Diane Williamson
Bio: E. Diane Williamson is an academic researcher from Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. The author has contributed to research in topics: Antigen & Yersinia pestis. The author has an hindex of 38, co-authored 84 publications receiving 3689 citations. Previous affiliations of E. Diane Williamson include Defence Evaluation and Research Agency & Salisbury University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The limit of protection achievable by immunisation with sub-units of Yersinia pestis against the development of plague in an experimental animal model is determined and the combined sub-unit vaccine has clear advantages over the live vaccine in terms of safety of use and absence of side-effects.
Abstract: In this study, we have determined the limit of protection achievable by immunisation with sub-units of Yersinia pestis against the development of plague in an experimental animal model. Co-immunisation with the purified culture-derived F1 and the recombinant V sub-units afforded a greater level of protection than with either sub-unit alone. The protection given by the combined sub-units was several orders of magnitude greater than that afforded by the whole cell killed (Cutter USP) vaccine and was equivalent to that achieved by vaccination with EV76, the live attenuated Y. pestis vaccine strain. However, the combined sub-unit vaccine has clear advantages over the live vaccine in terms of safety of use and absence of side-effects.
TL;DR: A sub-unit vaccine based on the F1- and V-antigens is highly effective against both bubonic and pneumonic plague, when tested in animal models of disease.
TL;DR: The protection achieved against inhalational challenge with Yersinia pestis is attributed to the induction of systemic immunity to both the F1 and V antigens in the sub-unit vaccine.
TL;DR: Of a range of candidate vaccines, an injected subunit vaccine is likely to offer the best near-term solution to the provision of a vaccine that protects against both bubonic and pneumonic plague.
Abstract: Live attenuated and killed whole cell vaccines against disease caused by Yersinia pestis have been available since the early part of the last century. Although these vaccines indicate the feasibility of protecting against disease, they have a number of shortcomings. The live attenuated vaccine is highly reactogenic and is not licensed for use in humans. The killed whole cell vaccine, also reactogenic, provides poor protection against pneumonic plague and immunisation requires multiple doses of the vaccine. Against this background, a range of candidate vaccines, including rationally attenuated mutants, subunit vaccines and naked DNA vaccines have been described. Of these, an injected subunit vaccine is likely to offer the best near-term solution to the provision of a vaccine that protects against both bubonic and pneumonic plague.
TL;DR: Results show that protection can be attributed to individual domains and imply that it is domain 4 which contains the dominant protective epitopes of PA.
Abstract: The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of overlapping regions of the protective antigen (PA) polypeptide, cloned and expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, have been assessed. Results show that protection can be attributed to individual domains and imply that it is domain 4 which contains the dominant protective epitopes of PA.
TL;DR: The state of the art in the adjuvant field is reviewed, future directions of adjUvant development are explored, some of the impediments and barriers to development and registration of new human adjuvants are examined and some of those barriers are examined are examined.
Abstract: The problem with pure recombinant or synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines is that they are generally far less immunogenic than older style live or killed whole organism vaccines. This has created a major need for improved and more powerful adjuvants for use in these vaccines. With few exceptions, alum remains the sole adjuvant approved for human use in the majority of countries worldwide. Although alum is able to induce a good antibody (Th2) response, it has little capacity to stimulate cellular (Th1) immune responses which are so important for protection against many pathogens. In addition, alum has the potential to cause severe local and systemic side-effects including sterile abscesses, eosinophilia and myofascitis, although fortunately most of the more serious side-effects are relatively rare. There is also community concern regarding the possible role of aluminium in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, there is a major unmet need for safer and more effective adjuvants suitable for human use. In particular, there is demand for safe and non-toxic adjuvants able to stimulate cellular (Th1) immunity. Other needs in light of new vaccine technologies are adjuvants suitable for use with mucosally-delivered vaccines, DNA vaccines, cancer and autoimmunity vaccines. Each of these areas are highly specialized with their own unique needs in respect of suitable adjuvant technology. This paper reviews the state of the art in the adjuvant field, explores future directions of adjuvant development and finally examines some of the impediments and barriers to development and registration of new human adjuvants.
TL;DR: A productive future for DNA vaccine technology is suggested as more optimized constructs, better trial designs and improved platforms are being brought into the clinic.
Abstract: Since the discovery, over a decade and a half ago, that genetically engineered DNA can be delivered in vaccine form and elicit an immune response, there has been much progress in understanding the basic biology of this platform. A large amount of data has been generated in preclinical model systems, and more sustained cellular responses and more consistent antibody responses are being observed in the clinic. Four DNA vaccine products have recently been approved, all in the area of veterinary medicine. These results suggest a productive future for this technology as more optimized constructs, better trial designs and improved platforms are being brought into the clinic.
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-analyses of the prophylaxis and therapy practices followed by a discussion of these practices in relation to the case of C. perfringens.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION 216 CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS 216 Introduction 216 Major Toxins 216 Disease and Pathogenesis by Toxin Type 217 Type A 218 Type B 219 Type C 219 Type D 220 Type E 220 Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens 221 Reports of untyped C. perfringens 221 Prophylaxis and Therapy 222 Diagnosis 222 CLOSTRIDIUM SEPTICUM 223 Introduction 223 Virulence Attributes and Pathogenesis of Enteric Disease 223 Prophylaxis and Therapy 224 Diagnosis 224 CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE 224 CLOSTRIDIUM SPIROFORME 225 CLOSTRIDIUM COLINUM 226 REFERENCES 226
TL;DR: Although a variety of univariate statistics are included, certain topics that are important in medical research are not, and there is little or no discussion of multiple regression, life-table techniques, or pooling of studies.
Abstract: This book attempts to achieve a difficult goal: to teach statistics to the novice so as to impart a liking and understanding of statistics. The book is geared toward a medical audience, since most examples are from the medical literature. The structure of the book consists of the following elements in each chapter: a small number of statistical rules of thumb, followed by a nontechnical explanation, a demonstration of how to work through the mechanics of doing the statistical test in question, a summary, and sample problems to be solved by the reader. (The answers, with explanations, are provided in an appendix.) Although a variety of univariate statistics are included, certain topics that are important in medical research are not. For example, there is little or no discussion of multiple regression, life-table techniques, or pooling of studies. These omissions, especially of multiple regression, are unfortunate. The Primer was derived from