Author

# Edsger W. Dijkstra

Bio: Edsger W. Dijkstra is an academic researcher from University of Texas at Austin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Correctness & Dijkstra's algorithm. The author has an hindex of 45, co-authored 173 publications receiving 47159 citations.

##### Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A tree is a graph with one and only one path between every two nodes, where at least one path exists between any two nodes and the length of each branch is given.
Abstract: We consider n points (nodes), some or all pairs of which are connected by a branch; the length of each branch is given. We restrict ourselves to the case where at least one path exists between any two nodes. We now consider two problems. Problem 1. Constrnct the tree of minimum total length between the n nodes. (A tree is a graph with one and only one path between every two nodes.) In the course of the construction that we present here, the branches are subdivided into three sets: I. the branches definitely assignec~ to the tree under construction (they will form a subtree) ; II. the branches from which the next branch to be added to set I, will be selected ; III. the remaining branches (rejected or not yet considered). The nodes are subdivided into two sets: A. the nodes connected by the branches of set I, B. the remaining nodes (one and only one branch of set II will lead to each of these nodes), We start the construction by choosing an arbitrary node as the only member of set A, and by placing all branches that end in this node in set II. To start with, set I is empty. From then onwards we perform the following two steps repeatedly. Step 1. The shortest branch of set II is removed from this set and added to

22,704 citations

Book
01 Jan 1976

4,719 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the synchronization task between loosely coupled cyclic sequential processes is viewed as keeping the relation "the system is in a legitimate state" invariant, and each individual process step that could possibly cause violation of that relation is preceded by a test deciding whether the process in question is allowed to proceed or has to be delayed.
Abstract: The synchronization task between loosely coupled cyclic sequential processes (as can be distinguished in, for instance, operating systems) can be viewed as keeping the relation “the system is in a legitimate state” invariant. As a result, each individual process step that could possibly cause violation of that relation has to be preceded by a test deciding whether the process in question is allowed to proceed or has to be delayed. The resulting design is readily—and quite systematically—implemented if the different processes can be granted mutually exclusive access to a common store in which “the current system state” is recorded.

2,118 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: So-called “guarded commands” are introduced as a building block for alternative and repetitive constructs that allow nondeterministic program components for which at least the activity evoked, but possibly even the final state, is not necessarily uniquely determined by the initial state.
Abstract: So-called “guarded commands” are introduced as a building block for alternative and repetitive constructs that allow nondeterministic program components for which at least the activity evoked, but possibly even the final state, is not necessarily uniquely determined by the initial state. For the formal derivation of programs expressed in terms of these constructs, a calculus will be be shown.

2,048 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: This chapter is intended for all those who expect that in their future activities they will become seriously involved in the problems that arise in either the design or the more advanced applications of digital information processing equipment.
Abstract: This chapter is intended for all those who expect that in their future activities they will become seriously involved in the problems that arise in either the design or the more advanced applications of digital information processing equipment; they are further intended for all those who are just interested in information processing.

1,319 citations

##### Cited by
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Book
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems as mentioned in this paper is a complete and accessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty, and provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief.
Abstract: From the Publisher: Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems is a complete andaccessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty. The author provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief and offers a unifying perspective on other AI approaches to uncertainty, such as the Dempster-Shafer formalism, truth maintenance systems, and nonmonotonic logic. The author distinguishes syntactic and semantic approaches to uncertaintyand offers techniques, based on belief networks, that provide a mechanism for making semantics-based systems operational. Specifically, network-propagation techniques serve as a mechanism for combining the theoretical coherence of probability theory with modern demands of reasoning-systems technology: modular declarative inputs, conceptually meaningful inferences, and parallel distributed computation. Application areas include diagnosis, forecasting, image interpretation, multi-sensor fusion, decision support systems, plan recognition, planning, speech recognitionin short, almost every task requiring that conclusions be drawn from uncertain clues and incomplete information. Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems will be of special interest to scholars and researchers in AI, decision theory, statistics, logic, philosophy, cognitive psychology, and the management sciences. Professionals in the areas of knowledge-based systems, operations research, engineering, and statistics will find theoretical and computational tools of immediate practical use. The book can also be used as an excellent text for graduate-level courses in AI, operations research, or applied probability.

15,671 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method.
Abstract: This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When combined with a development of Dijkstra's guarded command, these concepts are surprisingly versatile. Their use is illustrated by sample solutions of a variety of a familiar programming exercises.

11,419 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A set of automated procedures for obtaining accurate reconstructions of the cortical surface are described, which have been applied to data from more than 100 subjects, requiring little or no manual intervention.

9,599 citations

Book
01 Jan 1974
TL;DR: This text introduces the basic data structures and programming techniques often used in efficient algorithms, and covers use of lists, push-down stacks, queues, trees, and graphs.
Abstract: From the Publisher: With this text, you gain an understanding of the fundamental concepts of algorithms, the very heart of computer science. It introduces the basic data structures and programming techniques often used in efficient algorithms. Covers use of lists, push-down stacks, queues, trees, and graphs. Later chapters go into sorting, searching and graphing algorithms, the string-matching algorithms, and the Schonhage-Strassen integer-multiplication algorithm. Provides numerous graded exercises at the end of each chapter. 0201000296B04062001

9,262 citations

01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Platform-independent and open source igraph aims to satisfy all the requirements of a graph package while possibly remaining easy to use in interactive mode as well.
Abstract: There is no other package around that satisfies all the following requirements: •Ability to handle large graphs efficiently •Embeddable into higher level environments (like R [6] or Python [7]) •Ability to be used for quick prototyping of new algorithms (impossible with “click & play” interfaces) •Platform-independent and open source igraph aims to satisfy all these requirements while possibly remaining easy to use in interactive mode as well.

8,850 citations