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Eiko Nemitz

Other affiliations: Research Triangle Park, University of Manchester, EC-Council  ...read more
Bio: Eiko Nemitz is an academic researcher from Natural Environment Research Council. The author has contributed to research in topics: Eddy covariance & Aerosol. The author has an hindex of 65, co-authored 282 publications receiving 13339 citations. Previous affiliations of Eiko Nemitz include Research Triangle Park & University of Manchester.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The literature on atmospheric particulate maffer (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature.
Abstract: The literature on atmospheric particulate maffer (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500—2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which have allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate maffer constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and for climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol sciences and thepoticy needs, which have driven much ofthe increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate—aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. However, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important influences on premature human mortality, we stijl do not know the relative importance of the different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global wanning and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2°C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SlA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China and the USA. Thus, there is much that could be done to reduce the effects of atmospheric PM on the climate and the health of the environment and the human population. A prioritized list of actions to mitigate the full range of effects ofPM is currently undeliverable due to shortcomings in the knowledge of aerosol science; among the shortcomings, the roles of PM in global climate and the relative roles of different PM precursor sources and their response to climate and land use change over the remaining decades of this century are prominent. In any case, the evidence from this paper strongly advocates for an integrated approach to air quality and climate policies.

648 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the state of the art in understanding the processes involved in the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the earth's surface and the atmosphere can be found in this article.

627 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the size distributions of Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Se, Sr, Zn and Fe in atmospheric aerosols were measured using impactors at three background sites in central England and southern Scotland.

362 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Markku Kulmala1, Ari Asmi1, Hanna Lappalainen2, Hanna Lappalainen1, Urs Baltensperger3, J. L. Brenguier, Maria Cristina Facchini4, Hans-Christen Hansson5, Øystein Hov6, Colin D. O'Dowd7, Ulrich Pöschl8, Alfred Wiedensohler9, R. Boers10, Olivier Boucher11, Olivier Boucher12, G. de Leeuw1, G. de Leeuw2, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Johann Feichter8, Radovan Krejci5, Paolo Laj13, Heikki Lihavainen2, Ulrike Lohmann14, Gordon McFiggans15, Thomas F. Mentel, Christodoulos Pilinis16, Ilona Riipinen1, Ilona Riipinen17, Michael Schulz6, Andreas Stohl18, Erik Swietlicki19, Elisabetta Vignati, Célia Alves20, Markus Amann21, Markus Ammann3, Sylwester Arabas22, Paulo Artaxo23, Holger Baars9, David C. S. Beddows24, Robert Bergström25, Johan P. Beukes26, Merete Bilde27, John F. Burkhart18, Francesco Canonaco3, Simon L. Clegg28, Hugh Coe15, Suzanne Crumeyrolle29, Barbara D'Anna30, Stefano Decesari4, Stefania Gilardoni, Marc Fischer, A. M. Fjaeraa18, Christos Fountoukis17, Christian George30, L. Gomes, Paul R. Halloran12, Thomas Hamburger, Roy M. Harrison24, Hartmut Herrmann9, Thorsten Hoffmann31, Corinna Hoose32, Min Hu33, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen2, Urmas Hõrrak34, Yoshiteru Iinuma9, Trond Iversen6, Miroslav Josipovic26, Maria Kanakidou35, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Alf Kirkevåg6, Gyula Kiss36, Zbigniew Klimont21, Pekka Kolmonen2, Mika Komppula2, Jón Egill Kristjánsson37, Lauri Laakso1, Lauri Laakso26, Lauri Laakso2, Ari Laaksonen2, Ari Laaksonen38, Laurent C.-Labonnote11, V. A. Lanz3, Kari E. J. Lehtinen38, Kari E. J. Lehtinen2, Luciana V. Rizzo23, Risto Makkonen1, Hanna E. Manninen1, Gavin R. McMeeking15, Joonas Merikanto1, Andreas Minikin, Sander Mirme, William T. Morgan15, Eiko Nemitz, D. O'Donnell8, T. S. Panwar39, Hanna Pawlowska22, Andreas Petzold, Jacobus J. Pienaar26, Casimiro Pio20, C. Plass-Duelmer40, André S. H. Prévôt3, Sara C. Pryor, Carly Reddington41, G. Roberts10, Daniel Rosenfeld42, Joshua P. Schwarz, Øyvind Seland6, Karine Sellegri43, X. J. Shen, Manabu Shiraiwa8, Holger Siebert9, B. Sierau14, David Simpson44, David Simpson6, J. Y. Sun, David Topping15, Peter Tunved5, Petri Vaattovaara38, Ville Vakkari1, J. P. Veefkind10, Antoon Visschedijk, Henri Vuollekoski1, R. Vuolo, Birgit Wehner9, J. Wildt, Simon Woodward12, D. R. Worsnop2, D. R. Worsnop1, G.-J. van Zadelhoff10, A. A. Zardini27, Kai Zhang8, P. G. van Zyl26, Veli-Matti Kerminen2, Kenneth S. Carslaw41, Spyros N. Pandis17 
TL;DR: The European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI) as mentioned in this paper was the first project to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality.
Abstract: In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.

360 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an atmospheric transport model was used to simulate the transport and deposition of PM10 across two UK conurbations (the West Midlands and Glasgow). Tree planting was simulated by modifying the land cover database, using GIS techniques and field surveys to estimate reasonable planting potentials.

352 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 May 2008-Science
TL;DR: Optimizing the need for a key human resource while minimizing its negative consequences requires an integrated interdisciplinary approach and the development of strategies to decrease nitrogen-containing waste.
Abstract: Humans continue to transform the global nitrogen cycle at a record pace, reflecting an increased combustion of fossil fuels, growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, and pervasive inefficiencies in its use. Much anthropogenic nitrogen is lost to air, water, and land to cause a cascade of environmental and human health problems. Simultaneously, food production in some parts of the world is nitrogen-deficient, highlighting inequities in the distribution of nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Optimizing the need for a key human resource while minimizing its negative consequences requires an integrated interdisciplinary approach and the development of strategies to decrease nitrogen-containing waste.

5,249 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a document, redatto, voted and pubblicato by the Ipcc -Comitato intergovernativo sui cambiamenti climatici - illustra la sintesi delle ricerche svolte su questo tema rilevante.
Abstract: Cause, conseguenze e strategie di mitigazione Proponiamo il primo di una serie di articoli in cui affronteremo l’attuale problema dei mutamenti climatici. Presentiamo il documento redatto, votato e pubblicato dall’Ipcc - Comitato intergovernativo sui cambiamenti climatici - che illustra la sintesi delle ricerche svolte su questo tema rilevante.

4,187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) is used to quantify net terrestrial biosphere emission of isoprene into the atmosphere as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: . Reactive gases and aerosols are produced by terrestrial ecosystems, processed within plant canopies, and can then be emitted into the above-canopy atmosphere. Estimates of the above-canopy fluxes are needed for quantitative earth system studies and assessments of past, present and future air quality and climate. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) is described and used to quantify net terrestrial biosphere emission of isoprene into the atmosphere. MEGAN is designed for both global and regional emission modeling and has global coverage with ~1 km2 spatial resolution. Field and laboratory investigations of the processes controlling isoprene emission are described and data available for model development and evaluation are summarized. The factors controlling isoprene emissions include biological, physical and chemical driving variables. MEGAN driving variables are derived from models and satellite and ground observations. Tropical broadleaf trees contribute almost half of the estimated global annual isoprene emission due to their relatively high emission factors and because they are often exposed to conditions that are conducive for isoprene emission. The remaining flux is primarily from shrubs which have a widespread distribution. The annual global isoprene emission estimated with MEGAN ranges from about 500 to 750 Tg isoprene (440 to 660 Tg carbon) depending on the driving variables which include temperature, solar radiation, Leaf Area Index, and plant functional type. The global annual isoprene emission estimated using the standard driving variables is ~600 Tg isoprene. Differences in driving variables result in emission estimates that differ by more than a factor of three for specific times and locations. It is difficult to evaluate isoprene emission estimates using the concentration distributions simulated using chemistry and transport models, due to the substantial uncertainties in other model components, but at least some global models produce reasonable results when using isoprene emission distributions similar to MEGAN estimates. In addition, comparison with isoprene emissions estimated from satellite formaldehyde observations indicates reasonable agreement. The sensitivity of isoprene emissions to earth system changes (e.g., climate and land-use) demonstrates the potential for large future changes in emissions. Using temperature distributions simulated by global climate models for year 2100, MEGAN estimates that isoprene emissions increase by more than a factor of two. This is considerably greater than previous estimates and additional observations are needed to evaluate and improve the methods used to predict future isoprene emissions.

3,746 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Myhre et al. as discussed by the authors presented the contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2013: Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative forcing.
Abstract: This chapter should be cited as: Myhre, G., D. Shindell, F.-M. Bréon, W. Collins, J. Fuglestvedt, J. Huang, D. Koch, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Lee, B. Mendoza, T. Nakajima, A. Robock, G. Stephens, T. Takemura and H. Zhang, 2013: Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Coordinating Lead Authors: Gunnar Myhre (Norway), Drew Shindell (USA)

3,684 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an overview of the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors, gas-particle partitioning theory and analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA is presented.
Abstract: Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with an update on the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and is followed by an overview of the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors, gas-particle partitioning theory and the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail: molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.

3,324 citations