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Elias Siores

Bio: Elias Siores is an academic researcher from University of Bolton. The author has contributed to research in topics: Coronary artery disease & Piezoelectricity. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 84 publications receiving 1887 citations. Previous affiliations of Elias Siores include American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a knitted single-structure piezoelectric generator consisting of high β-phase (∼80%) polyamide multifilaments as the spacer yarn interconnected between silver (Ag) coated polyamide multilament yarn layers acting as the top and bottom electrodes is presented.
Abstract: The piezoelectric effect in poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, was discovered over four decades ago and since then, significant work has been carried out aiming at the production of high β-phase fibres and their integration into fabric structures for energy harvesting. However, little work has been done in the area of production of “true piezoelectric fabric structures” based on flexible polymeric materials such as PVDF. In this work, we demonstrate “3D spacer” technology based all-fibre piezoelectric fabrics as power generators and energy harvesters. The knitted single-structure piezoelectric generator consists of high β-phase (∼80%) piezoelectric PVDF monofilaments as the spacer yarn interconnected between silver (Ag) coated polyamide multifilament yarn layers acting as the top and bottom electrodes. The novel and unique textile structure provides an output power density in the range of 1.10–5.10 μW cm−2 at applied impact pressures in the range of 0.02–0.10 MPa, thus providing significantly higher power outputs and efficiencies over the existing 2D woven and nonwoven piezoelectric structures. The high energy efficiency, mechanical durability and comfort of the soft, flexible and all-fibre based power generator are highly attractive for a variety of potential applications such as wearable electronic systems and energy harvesters charged from the ambient environment or by human movement.

230 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the voltage responses of ceramic-based piezoelectric fiber composite structures (PFCs) and polymer-based PFC strips, PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), were evaluated when subjected to various wind speeds and water droplets in order to investigate the possibility of energy generation from these two natural renewable energy sources for utilization in low power electronic devices.
Abstract: Piezoelectric materials have been in use for many years; however, with an increasing concern about global warming, piezoelectricity has gained significant importance in research and development for extracting energy from the environment. In this work the voltage responses of ceramic based piezoelectric fibre composite structures (PFCs) and polymer based piezoelectric strips, PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), were evaluated when subjected to various wind speeds and water droplets in order to investigate the possibility of energy generation from these two natural renewable energy sources for utilization in low power electronic devices. The effects of material dimensions, drop mass, releasing height of the drops and wind speed on the voltage output were studied and the power was calculated. This work showed that piezoelectric polymer materials can generate higher voltage/power than ceramic based piezoelectric materials and it was proved that producing energy from renewable sources such as rain drops and wind is possible by using piezoelectric polymer materials.

230 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
L.M. Swallow1, Jikui Luo1, Elias Siores1, I. Patel1, D. Dodds1 
TL;DR: In this paper, a micropower generator using microcomposite based piezoelectric materials for energy reclamation in glove structures is presented, where the fibres are laid within a single laminate structure with copper interdigitated electrodes assembled on both sides.
Abstract: Rapid technological advances in nanotechnology, microelectronic sensors and systems are becoming increasingly miniaturized to the point where embedded wearable applications are beginning to emerge. A restriction to the widespread application of these microsystems is the power supply of relatively sizable dimensions, weight, and limited lifespan. Emerging micropower sources exploit self-powered generators utilizing the intrinsic energy conversion characteristics of smart materials. 'Energy harvesting' describes the process by which energy is extracted from the environment, converted and stored. Piezoelectric materials have been used to convert mechanical into electrical energy through their inherent piezoelectric effect. This paper focuses on the development of a micropower generator using microcomposite based piezoelectric materials for energy reclamation in glove structures. Devices consist of piezoelectric fibres, 90–250 µm in diameter, aligned in a unidirectional manner and incorporated into a composite structure. The fibres are laid within a single laminate structure with copper interdigitated electrodes assembled on both sides, forming a thin film device. Performances of devices with different fibre diameters and material thicknesses are investigated. Experiments are outlined that detail the performance characteristics of such piezoelectric fibre laminates. Results presented show voltage outputs up to 6 V which is considered enough for potential applications in powering wearable microsystems.

190 citations

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TL;DR: The extraordinarily high β-phase and piezoelectric coefficient of these PVDF films make them suitable for electroactive and energy harvesting applications.

155 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a vertical contact-separation mode triboelectric generator based on lead-free perovskite, zinc stannate (ZnSnO3)-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite and polyamide-6 (PA6) membrane is demonstrated.

120 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
07 Jul 2014-Sensors
TL;DR: This review focuses on recent advances in the field of Smart Textiles and pays particular attention to the materials and their manufacturing process, to highlight a possible trade-off between flexibility, ergonomics, low power consumption, integration and eventually autonomy.
Abstract: Electronic Textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that feature electronics and interconnections woven into them, presenting physical flexibility and typical size that cannot be achieved with other existing electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and not susceptible of becoming tangled or snagged by surrounding objects. E-textiles can also more easily adapt to fast changes in the computational and sensing requirements of any specific application, this one representing a useful feature for power management and context awareness. The vision behind wearable computing foresees future electronic systems to be an integral part of our everyday outfits. Such electronic devices have to meet special requirements concerning wearability. Wearable systems will be characterized by their ability to automatically recognize the activity and the behavioral status of their own user as well as of the situation around her/him, and to use this information to adjust the systems' configuration and functionality. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of Smart Textiles and pays particular attention to the materials and their manufacturing process. Each technique shows advantages and disadvantages and our aim is to highlight a possible trade-off between flexibility, ergonomics, low power consumption, integration and eventually autonomy.

1,576 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Review presents a comprehensive review of the use of ferroelectric polymers, especially PVDF and PVDF-based copolymers/blends as potential components in dielectric nanocomposite materials for high energy density capacitor applications.
Abstract: Dielectric polymer nanocomposites are rapidly emerging as novel materials for a number of advanced engineering applications. In this Review, we present a comprehensive review of the use of ferroelectric polymers, especially PVDF and PVDF-based copolymers/blends as potential components in dielectric nanocomposite materials for high energy density capacitor applications. Various parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss, breakdown strength, energy density, and flexibility of the polymer nanocomposites have been thoroughly investigated. Fillers with different shapes have been found to cause significant variation in the physical and electrical properties. Generally, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanofillers with large aspect ratios provide enhanced flexibility versus zero-dimensional fillers. Surface modification of nanomaterials as well as polymers adds flavor to the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites. Nowadays, three-phase nanocomposites with either combination of fillers...

1,143 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the reported piezoelectric energy harvesting from vibration is presented, where various types of vibration devices, piezoceramics and mathematical modeling of vibrational energy harvesting are reviewed.
Abstract: This paper reviews energy harvesting technology from mechanical vibration. Recent advances on ultralow power portable electronic devices and wireless sensor network require limitless battery life for better performance. People searched for permanent portable power sources for advanced electronic devices. Energy is everywhere around us and the most important part in energy harvesting is energy transducer. Piezoelectric materials have high energy conversion ability from mechanical vibration. A great amount of researches have been conducted to develop simple and efficient energy harvesting devices from vibration by using piezoelectric materials. Representative piezoelectric materials can be categorized into piezoceramics and piezopolymers. This paper reviews key ideas and performances of the reported piezoelectric energy harvesting from vibration. Various types of vibration devices, piezoelectric materials and mathematical modeling of vibrational energy harvestings are reviewed.

901 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A detailed overview of the energy harvesting technologies associated with piezoelectric materials along with the closely related sub-classes of pyroelectrics and ferro-electrics can be found in this article.
Abstract: This review provides a detailed overview of the energy harvesting technologies associated with piezoelectric materials along with the closely related sub-classes of pyroelectrics and ferroelectrics. These properties are, in many cases, present in the same material, providing the intriguing prospect of a material that can harvest energy from multiple sources including vibration, thermal fluctuations and light. Piezoelectric materials are initially discussed in the context of harvesting mechanical energy from vibrations using inertial energy harvesting, which relies on the resistance of a mass to acceleration, and kinematic energy harvesting which directly couples the energy harvester to the relative movement of different parts of a source. Issues related to mode of operation, loss mechanisms and using non-linearity to enhance the operating frequency range are described along with the potential materials that could be employed for harvesting vibrations at elevated temperatures. In addition to inorganic piezoelectric materials, compliant piezoelectric materials are also discussed. Piezoelectric energy harvesting devices are complex multi-physics systems requiring advanced methodologies to maximise their performance. The research effort to develop optimisation methods for complex piezoelectric energy harvesters is then reviewed. The use of ferroelectric or multi-ferroic materials to convert light into chemical or electrical energy is then described in applications where the internal electric field can prevent electron–hole recombination or enhance chemical reactions at the ferroelectric surface. Finally, pyroelectric harvesting generates power from temperature fluctuations and this review covers the modes of pyroelectric harvesting such as simple resistive loading and Olsen cycles. Nano-scale pyroelectric systems and novel micro-electro-mechanical-systems designed to increase the operating frequency are discussed.

882 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors summarize the advances in the preparation methods of N-doped carbons for applications in supercapacitors and discuss and predict futuristic research trends towards the design and syntheses of Ndoped carbon-based carbons with unique properties for electrochemical energy storage.
Abstract: It is of great interest to develop new carbon-based materials as electrodes for supercapacitors because the conventional electrodes of activated carbons in supercapacitors cannot meet the ever-increasing demands for high energy and power densities for electronic devices. Due to their high electronic conductivity and improved hydrophilic properties, together with their easy syntheses and functionalization, N-doped carbons have shown a great potential in energy storage and conversion applications. In this review, after a brief introduction of electrochemical capacitors, we summarize the advances, in the recent six years, in the preparation methods of N-doped carbons for applications in supercapacitors. We also discuss and predict futuristic research trends towards the design and syntheses of N-doped carbons with unique properties for electrochemical energy storage.

821 citations