Bio: Elif Eker-Develi is an academic researcher from Mersin University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Phytoplankton & Emiliania huxleyi. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 15 publications receiving 436 citations. Previous affiliations of Elif Eker-Develi include Korean Council for University Education & Middle East Technical University.
TL;DR: Monitoring for 6 years showed that the population explosion of the alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the southern Caspian Sea coincided with a decline in the abundance and species number of mesozooplankton, and some changes in the macrobenthic fauna were also conspicuous after the increase of this ctenophile.
Abstract: Monitoring for 6 years (2001–2006) showed that the population explosion of the alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the southern Caspian Sea coincided with a decline in the abundance and species number of mesozooplankton. While this decline appeared to have reduced the nourishment of sprat (also known as kilka), it seemed to have affected phytoplankton favorably mainly due to the decrease in grazing pressure. During 2001–2002, when M. leidyi abundance and biomass were at their highest levels, abundance of dinoflagellates and cyanophytes exceeded that of diatoms. Before the invasion (1996) and in some years after the invasion (2003, 2004 and 2006) diatom abundance was higher than the abundance of other groups. In September 2005, an unprecedented bloom of the toxic cyanophyte Nodularia sp. was observed in the southern Caspian Sea. Disappearance of edible zooplankton such as Eurytemora spp. was among the first changes observed after the expansion of M. leidyi in the area. Some changes in the macrobenthic fauna were also conspicuous after the increase of this ctenophore. While the biomass of some deposit feeders, such as the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and oligochaete species increased, benthic crustaceans decreased sharply in abundance during 2001–2003 and completely disappeared during 2004–2006. Iranian catches of kilka, the most abundant and widespread zooplanktivorous fish, decreased significantly in the southern Caspian Sea after 1999. Iranian landings of kilka dropped ~70% from 69,070 ± 20,270 t during 1995–2000 to 23,430 ± 12,240 t during 2001–2006, resulting in a loss of at least 125 million US dollars to the economy. There were also changes in the total catches of large predators such as the kutum and mullet, which mainly feed on kilka, between 1991 and 2006.
TL;DR: A significant correlation was observed between satellite derived chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations and the biomass of the invasive comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi in the southern Caspian Sea.
Abstract: A significant correlation was observed between satellite derived chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations and the biomass of the invasive comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi in the southern Caspian Sea. By consuming the herbivorous zooplankton, the predatory ctenophore M. leidyi may have caused levels of Chl a to rise to very high values ( ∼ 9 mg m − 3 ) in the southern Caspian Sea. There might also be several other factors concurrent with predation effects of M. leidyi influencing Chl a levels in this region, such as eutrophication and climatic changes which play major roles in nutrient, phytoplankton, and zooplankton variations. The decrease in pelagic fishes due to overfishing, natural, and anthropogenic impacts might have provided a suitable environment for M. leidyi to spread throughout this enclosed basin.
TL;DR: There was a remarkable similarity in the dominant species between the western and eastern regions of the southern Black Sea, indicating transport of phytoplankton within the basin.
Abstract: The species composition, abundance, and biomass of micro- (>15 μm) and nano- (<15 μm) phytoplankton were studied along the southern Black Sea during June–July 1996 and March–April and September 1998. A total of 150 species were identified, ∼50% of them being dinoflagellates. The average total phytoplankton abundance changed from 77×103 cells l−1 in spring to 110×103 cells l−1 in autumn and biomass from 250 μg l−1 in summer to 1370 μg l−1 in spring. Based on the extensive sampling grid from June–July 1996, phytoplankton seemed to have a rather homogeneous biomass distribution in the southern Black Sea. In all periods, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi was the most abundant species, its contribution to the total abundance ranging from 73% in autumn to 43% in spring. However, in terms of biomass, diatoms made up the bulk of phytoplankton in spring (97%, majority being Proboscia alata) and autumn (73%, majority being Pseudosolenia calcar-avis), and dinoflagellates in summer (74%, Gymnodinium sp.). There was a remarkable similarity in the dominant species between the western and eastern regions of the southern Black Sea, indicating transport of phytoplankton within the basin.
TL;DR: The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (Agassiz) has negatively affected the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and was observed during summer-autumn months coincident with warm temperatures and generally when the abundance of other zooplankton organisms was low.
Abstract: The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (Agassiz), which was transported from the Black Sea into the Caspian Sea at the end of the 1990s, has negatively affected the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. Zooplankton abundance, biomass and species composition were evaluated on the Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea during 2001–2006. A total of 18 merozooplankton (13 species composed of larvae of benthic animals) and holozooplankton (four Copepoda and one Cladocera) species were identified. The total number of zooplankton species found here was 50% less than in a previous investigation performed in the same region in 1996 before the introduction of Mnemiopsis leidyi into the Caspian Sea. Cladocera species seemed to be highly affected by the invasion of Mnemiopsis leidyi; only one species, Podon polyphemoides, remained in the study area, whereas 24 Cladocera species were found in the study carried out in 1996. Whereas among the Copepoda Eurytemora minor, Eurytemora grimmi, Calanipeda aquae dulcis and Acartia tonsa that were abundant before the Mnemiopsis leidyi invasion, only A. tonsa (copepodites and adults) dominated the inshore and offshore waters after the invasion. The maximum in zooplankton abundance (22,088 ± 24,840 indAEm )3 ) and biomass (64.1 ± 56.8 mgAEm )3 ) were recorded in December 2001 and August 2004, respectively. The annual mean zooplankton abundance during 2001–2006 was in the range of 3361– 8940 indAEm )3 ; this was two- to five-fold less than the zooplankton abundance in 1996. During 2001–2006, the highest abundance and biomass of Mnemiopsis leidyi were observed during summer-autumn months coincident with warm temperatures and generally when the abundance of other zooplankton organisms was low.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of atmospheric deposition and other environmental factors on phytoplankton dynamics were evaluated from an open and a coastal station in the northeastern Mediterranean between December 2000 and December 2001.
Abstract: Effects of atmospheric deposition and other environmental factors on phytoplankton dynamics were evaluated from an open (having offshore characteristics) and a coastal station in the northeastern Mediterranean between December 2000 and December 2001. Data on phytoplankton, chlorophyll a, nutrients, temperature and salinity were obtained at bi-weekly or more intense intervals during 1 yr, whilst transport of Saharan dust towards the sampling region was monitored daily by SeaWiFS (sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor) images. Diatoms were the group of highest average biomass during the entire investigation period. Although coccolithophores (mainly Emiliania huxleyi) numerically dominated at the open station during the study period, their maximum abundance was as low as 50 x 10 3 cells l -1 . The intensity of dust transport was observed to be highest in spring. Less intense transports were observed in summer and autumn. Several intense episodic dry and wet dust deposition events during the spring season observed by SeaWiFS images caused little or no increase in phytoplankton abundance and biomass in the following days and weeks. Nevertheless, it appears that less intense dust transport events increased phytoplankton abundance and biomass in August, September and October 2001, when water column stratification was at its peak. However, these increases were much weaker than the major winter-early spring bloom (in February and March), which was caused by upwelling, mixing the water column. We suggest that the impact of atmospheric nutrient input on phytoplankton in the Mediterranean is rather low on a yearly basis.
•29 May 2006
TL;DR: Reynolds as discussed by the authors provides basic information on composition, morphology and physiology of the main phyletic groups represented in marine and freshwater systems and reviews recent advances in community ecology, developing an appreciation of assembly processes, co-existence and competition, disturbance and diversity.
Abstract: Communities of microscopic plant life, or phytoplankton, dominate the Earth's aquatic ecosystems. This important new book by Colin Reynolds covers the adaptations, physiology and population dynamics of phytoplankton communities in lakes and rivers and oceans. It provides basic information on composition, morphology and physiology of the main phyletic groups represented in marine and freshwater systems and in addition reviews recent advances in community ecology, developing an appreciation of assembly processes, co-existence and competition, disturbance and diversity. Although focussed on one group of organisms, the book develops many concepts relevant to ecology in the broadest sense, and as such will appeal to graduate students and researchers in ecology, limnology and oceanography.
TL;DR: Of the 66 LMEs defined thus far that cover the world’s coastal waters and seas, trends of jellyfish abundance after 1950 (increasing, decreasing, or stable/variable) were identified for 45, with variable degrees of confidence.
Abstract: Although there are various indications and claims that jellyfish (ie, scyphozoans, cubozoans, most hydrozoans, ctenophores, and salps) have been increasing at a global scale in recent decades, a rigorous demonstration of this has never been presented Because this is mainly due to scarcity of quantitative time series of jellyfish abundance from scientific surveys, we attempt to complement such data with non-conventional information from other sources This was accomplished using the analytical framework of fuzzy logic, which allows the combination of information with variable degrees of cardinality, reliability, and temporal and spatial coverage Data were aggregated and analyzed at the scale of Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) Of the 66 LMEs defined thus far that cover the world’s coastal waters and seas, trends of jellyfish abundance after 1950 (increasing, decreasing, or stable/variable) were identified for 45, with variable degrees of confidence Of those 45 LMEs, the majority (28 or 62%) showed increasing trends These changes are discussed in the context of possible sources of bias and uncertainty, along with previously proposed hypotheses to explain increases in jellyfish
TL;DR: Chlorophytes were significantly more tolerant to high ammonium than diatoms, prymnesiophytes, dinoflagellates, and raphidophytes which were the least tolerant and toxicity is likely associated with the ammonium ion rather than ammonia.
Abstract: A literature review on the effects of high ammonium concentrations on the growth of 6 classes of microalgae suggests the following rankings. Mean optimal ammonium concentrations were 7600, 2500, 1400, 340, 260, 100 μM for Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Diatomophyceae, Raphidophyceae, and Dinophyceae respectively and their tolerance to high toxic ammonium levels was 39,000, 13,000, 2300, 3600, 2500, 1200 μM respectively. Field ammonium concentrations Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae, Diatomophyceae, and Raphidophyceae. Ammonia toxicity is mainly attributed to NH₃ at pHs >9 and at pHs <8, toxicity is likely associated with the ammonium ion rather than ammonia.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors extracted patterns from chlorophyll-a series measured at 84 estuarine-coastal sites, using a model that decomposes time series into an annual effect, mean seasonal pattern, and residual events.
Abstract: Phytoplankton variability is a primary driver of chemical and biological dynamics in the coastal zone because it directly affects water quality, biogeochemical cycling of reactive elements, and food supply to consumer organisms. Much has been learned about patterns of phytoplankton variability within individual ecosystems, but patterns have not been compared across the diversity of ecosystem types where marine waters are influenced by connectivity to land. We extracted patterns from chlorophyll-a series measured at 84 estuarine–coastal sites, using a model that decomposes time series into an annual effect, mean seasonal pattern, and residual “events.” Comparisons across sites revealed a large range of variability patterns, with some dominated by a recurrent seasonal pattern, others dominated by annual (i.e., year-to-year) variability as trends or regime shifts and others dominated by the residual component, which includes exceptional bloom events such as red tides. Why is the partitioning of phytoplankton variability at these three scales so diverse? We propose a hypothesis to guide next steps of comparative analysis: large year-to-year variability is a response to disturbance from human activities or shifts in the climate system; strong seasonal patterns develop where the governing processes are linked to the annual climate cycle; and large event-scale variability occurs at sites highly enriched with nutrients. Patterns of phytoplankton variability are therefore shaped by the site-specific relative importance of disturbance, annual climatology, and nutrient enrichment.
TL;DR: A broad continuum of seasonal patterns is revealed, with large variability across and within ecosystems, which contrasts with annual cycles of terrestrial and oceanic primary producers for which seasonal fluctuations are recurrent and synchronous over large geographic regions.
Abstract: Seasonal fluctuations of plant biomass and photosynthesis are key features of the Earth system because they drive variability of atmospheric CO2, water and nutrient cycling, and food supply to consumers. There is no inventory of phytoplankton seasonal cycles in nearshore coastal ecosystems where forcings from ocean, land and atmosphere intersect. We compiled time series of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) from 114 estuaries, lagoons, inland seas, bays and shallow coastal waters around the world, and searched for seasonal patterns as common timing and amplitude of monthly variability. The data revealed a broad continuum of seasonal patterns, with large variability across and within ecosystems. This contrasts with annual cycles of terrestrial and oceanic primary producers for which seasonal fluctuations are recurrent and synchronous over large geographic regions. This finding bears on two fundamental ecological questions: (1) how do estuarine and coastal consumers adapt to an irregular and unpredictable food supply, and (2) how can we extract signals of climate change from phytoplankton observations in coastal ecosystems where local-scale processes can mask responses to changing climate?