Elizabeth (Bess) Sadler
Other affiliations: University of Alberta
Bio: Elizabeth (Bess) Sadler is an academic researcher from University of Virginia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Information design & Interaction design. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 5 publications receiving 169 citations. Previous affiliations of Elizabeth (Bess) Sadler include University of Alberta.
TL;DR: A disparity between expectations and experience is indicated and point to graduate students as an underserved population in this context, especially in terms of the library's outreach efforts.
Abstract: Purpose – This study seeks to apply ecological psychology's concept of “affordance” to graduate students' information behavior in the academic library, and to explore the extent to which the affordances experienced by graduate students differed from the affordances librarians were attempting to provide.Design/methodology/approach – In‐depth, qualitative interviews with graduate students and academic librarians explored how the students perceived and used the library's various “opportunities for action” (e.g. books, databases, instructional sessions, librarians, physical space, etc.) and compared these perceptions and behavior with librarians' intentions and expectations.Findings – Findings indicate a disparity between expectations and experience and point to graduate students as an underserved population in this context, especially in terms of the library's outreach efforts. In addition, because graduate students are increasingly teaching introductory undergraduate courses, communication methods that bypa...
TL;DR: This study explores an image-based retrieval interface for drug information, focusing on usability for a specific population—seniors, and points to design features that meet seniors' needs in the context of other health-related information-seeking strategies.
Abstract: This study explores an image-based retrieval interface for drug information, focusing on usability for a specific population—seniors. Qualitative, task-based interviews examined participants' health information behaviors and documented search strategies using an existing database () and a new prototype that uses similarity-based clustering of pill images for retrieval. Twelve participants (aged 65 and older), reflecting a diversity of backgrounds and experience with Web-based resources, located pill information using the interfaces and discussed navigational and other search preferences. Findings point to design features (e.g., image enlargement) that meet seniors' needs in the context of other health-related information-seeking strategies (e.g., contacting pharmacists). © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
TL;DR: An overview of the open source online public access catalog (OPAC) software known as Blacklight, which shows particular promise among previously underserved populations such as music researchers, and for previously under‐used collections.
Abstract: Purpose – This paper sets out to provide an overview of the open source online public access catalog (OPAC) software known as Blacklight. It includes a discussion of the reasons why the University of Virginia decided to create the Blacklight project, rationale behind design decisions, an overview of the technologies used, and some examples of interface designs and object behaviors.Design/methodology/approach – Design approaches discussed include open source methodologies, model/view/controller development patterns, and strategies for efficient staff training and utilization.Findings – The Blacklight project is not yet complete, but initial usability testing is favorable. The project shows particular promise among previously underserved populations such as music researchers, and for previously under‐used collections.Practical implications – Libraries who are considering de‐coupling their OPAC from their Integrated Library System will find useful information about this process as undertaken by the Universit...
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined how seniors are able to access drug information using two different online systems, including a standard search interface and a visual browsing interface, where all of the pill images appear on a single screen, where the user identifies images by clustering the pills displayed by choosing similarity criteria related to the database search terms.
Abstract: This paper examines inclusive design delivery through interface design, with a particular focus on access to healthcare resources for seniors. The goal of the project was to examine how seniors are able to access drug information using two different online systems. In the existing retrieval system, pills are identified using a standard search interface. In the new browsing prototype, all of the pill images appear on a single screen, where the user identifies images by clustering the pills displayed by choosing similarity criteria related to the database search terms (e.g., all white pills or all pills of a certain size). The feedback mechanism in this interface involves re-organization of the pill images that are already visible to the user. We used a qualitative, task-based verbal analysis protocol with 12 participants aged 65 and older who were asked to locate pill images in each database and to discuss their preferences for navigation, aesthetics and the results that appear on the screen. By assessing the features of both interfaces, the results suggest possible models that could be applied in meeting seniors' information retrieval needs. INTRODUCTION As the general population ages (and as life expectancy rates increase), seniors are increasingly faced with complicated medical regimes. Sorting pills, to ensure that certain medications are taken at particular times of the day with or without meals, can be a daunting task for many patients, yet this task is a vital part of personal health management. As individuals age, visual and/or motor impairments make sorting, holding and identifying pills a challenge. Designing effective reference materials-including websites-can aid in patients' and caregivers' awareness and recognition of the range of available medications and help them to locate valuable drug information (e.g., side effects). This project was designed to explore the viability of a prototype, a visually based interface that would meet seniors' specific searching and retrieval needs. This empirical study addresses a theoretical issue raised by Ruecker and Chow (2003), which called for further research into the use of browsing strategies in interfaces for seniors accessing health information of various kinds. Qualitative interviews were used to explore participants' general information searching strategies, and computer tasks (employing a verbal analysis protocol) were used to assess two interfaces - including a prototype that was designed to bridge the physical (e.g., vision-related) and cognitive/emotional (e.g., issues of trust related to health information) needs of older adults. The goal of this project was to see if an alternative visual browsing interface, showing photographs of 1000 pills, could be useful for seniors interested in pill identification. Usefulness in this case involved a number of factors, ranging from the basic question of whether 1000 photos would simply be overwhelming, to concerns about the best methods for providing tools to manipulate the display, down to detailed questions about specific design choices relating to contrast, legibility and control size. The images could be magnified and also clustered by participants based on similarity in two visual dimensions: color and shape. INCLUSIVE DESIGN - A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Previous relevant research includes a wide range of studies on information design, browsing interfaces, information-seeking behaviors and public health information. In the design of human-computer interfaces, for example, Shneiderman and Plaisant (2004) provide a comprehensive overview of issues to consider, including concepts drawn from human factors, principles of interaction design, the importance of expert evaluation and user testing, and the role of support materials such as tutorials and help systems. In the more specialized area of browsing interfaces, a wide variety of examples have been discussed, including Small (1996) who proposed a 3D prospect view for browsing texts of Shakespeare's plays and Pirolli et al. …
••20 Oct 2013
TL;DR: This article applied ecological psychology's concept of "affordance" to graduate students' information behaviors given design decisions made by academic librarians, and conducted qualitative interviews to explore how students perceive and use the library's various tools (e.g., books, databases, instructional sessions, etc.).
Abstract: Applies ecological psychology’s concept of “affordance” to graduate students’ information behaviours given design decisions made by academic librarians. Qualitative interviews explore how students perceive and use the library’s various tools (e.g., books, databases, instructional sessions, librarians, etc.), and how students’ activities reflect librarians’ perceptions of what these tools can do. Application du concept de psychologie ecologique de « l’affordance » sur les comportements informationnels des etudiants de 2e cycle concernant les decisions de conception prises par les bibliothecaires universitaires. Des entrevues qualitatives explorent la maniere dont les etudiants percoivent et utilisent divers outils de la bibliotheque (par exemple : les livres, les base de donnees, les sessions de formation, les bibliothecaires, etc.) et la maniere dont les activites des etudiants refletent les perceptions des bibliothecaires sur ce que ces outils peuvent faire.
19 Apr 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce concepts relevant to Information Behavior Models, Paradigms, and Theories in the study of Information Behavior Methods for Studying Information Behavior Research Results and Reflections.
Abstract: Abbreviated Contents Figures and Tables Preface Introduction and Examples Concepts Relevant to Information Behavior Models, Paradigms, and Theories in the Study of Information Behavior Methods for Studying Information Behavior Research Results and Reflections Appendix: Glossary Appendix: Questions for Discussion and Application References Index
TL;DR: A holistic view of the study of computer use by older adults is provided, which provides a synthesis of the findings across these many disciplines, and attempts to highlight any gaps that exist.
Abstract: As the populations of most of the world's developed nations experience an increase in average age, a similar trend is being observed in the population of computer and Internet users. In many cases, older adults are the fastest growing computer and Internet user group in both personal and workplace contexts. However, the needs and concerns of older adults as computer users differ from those of younger users as a result of the natural changes associated with the aging process. Much research has been conducted in a variety of fields in order to understand how these changes experienced by older adults impact their use of computers and the Internet. This article reviews this existing research and provides a holistic view of the field. Since the study of computer use by older adults is a multi-disciplinary topic by nature, we provide a synthesis of the findings across these many disciplines, and attempt to highlight any gaps that exist. We use Social Cognitive Theory as a lens to view and organize the literature, as well as illustrate means through which computer use by this user group can be encouraged. Finally, suggestions for future research are proposed, and implications for research and practice are discussed.
TL;DR: Interestingly, information ecologies using technology with heart that you really wait for now is coming, it's significant to wait for the representative and beneficial books to read.
Abstract: Interestingly, information ecologies using technology with heart that you really wait for now is coming. It's significant to wait for the representative and beneficial books to read. Every book that is provided in better way and utterance will be expected by many peoples. Even you are a good reader or not, feeling to read this book will always appear when you find it. But, when you feel hard to find it as yours, what to do? Borrow to your friends and don't know when to give back it to her or him.
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: The broad history of research on information-seeking behavior over the last 50–60 years is reviewed, major landmarks are identified, and current directions in research are discussed.
Abstract: Information behavior” is the currently preferred term used to describe the many ways in which human beings interact with information, in particular, the ways in which people seek and utilize information. The broad history of research on information-seeking behavior over the last 50–60 years is reviewed, major landmarks are identified, and current directions in research are discussed.
TL;DR: This tutorial provides an overview of text ranking with neural network architectures known as transformers, of which BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) is the best-known example, and covers a wide range of techniques.
Abstract: The goal of text ranking is to generate an ordered list of texts retrieved from a corpus in response to a query. Although the most common formulation of text ranking is search, instances of the task can also be found in many natural language processing applications. This survey provides an overview of text ranking with neural network architectures known as transformers, of which BERT is the best-known example. The combination of transformers and self-supervised pretraining has been responsible for a paradigm shift in natural language processing (NLP), information retrieval (IR), and beyond. In this survey, we provide a synthesis of existing work as a single point of entry for practitioners who wish to gain a better understanding of how to apply transformers to text ranking problems and researchers who wish to pursue work in this area. We cover a wide range of modern techniques, grouped into two high-level categories: transformer models that perform reranking in multi-stage architectures and dense retrieval techniques that perform ranking directly. There are two themes that pervade our survey: techniques for handling long documents, beyond typical sentence-by-sentence processing in NLP, and techniques for addressing the tradeoff between effectiveness (i.e., result quality) and efficiency (e.g., query latency, model and index size). Although transformer architectures and pretraining techniques are recent innovations, many aspects of how they are applied to text ranking are relatively well understood and represent mature techniques. However, there remain many open research questions, and thus in addition to laying out the foundations of pretrained transformers for text ranking, this survey also attempts to prognosticate where the field is heading.