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Elsie R. Pamuk

Bio: Elsie R. Pamuk is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Social class & Social inequality. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 378 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was found that absolute inequality in mortality increased among adult men and married women during the 1950s and 1960s and relative inequality increased for all three groups.
Abstract: In this paper the data on occupational and social class mortality published decennially for England and Wales are used to examine the trend in the size of class differentials in mortality from 1921 to 1972 for adult men, married women and infants. Using summary measures which take into account changes in the relative sizes of the social classes over time, it was found that absolute inequality in mortality increased among adult men and married women during the 1950s and 1960s and relative inequality increased for all three groups. Two widely recognized potential sources of error, changes in the occupational composition of the social classes over time, and discrepancies between the numerators and denominators of occupation-specific death rates are examined to determine their effect on the trend indicated, and the initial findings are confirmed. Finally, the possible causes and implications of rising inequality coincident with declining overall levels of mortality, relative affluence, and the uniform availab...

392 citations


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D.L. Donoho1
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: It is possible to design n=O(Nlog(m)) nonadaptive measurements allowing reconstruction with accuracy comparable to that attainable with direct knowledge of the N most important coefficients, and a good approximation to those N important coefficients is extracted from the n measurements by solving a linear program-Basis Pursuit in signal processing.
Abstract: Suppose x is an unknown vector in Ropfm (a digital image or signal); we plan to measure n general linear functionals of x and then reconstruct. If x is known to be compressible by transform coding with a known transform, and we reconstruct via the nonlinear procedure defined here, the number of measurements n can be dramatically smaller than the size m. Thus, certain natural classes of images with m pixels need only n=O(m1/4log5/2(m)) nonadaptive nonpixel samples for faithful recovery, as opposed to the usual m pixel samples. More specifically, suppose x has a sparse representation in some orthonormal basis (e.g., wavelet, Fourier) or tight frame (e.g., curvelet, Gabor)-so the coefficients belong to an lscrp ball for 0

18,609 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality and self-assessed health among 22 countries in all parts of Europe and found that in almost all countries, the rates of death and poorer selfassessments of health were substantially higher in groups of lower socioeconomic status.
Abstract: A b s t r ac t Background Comparisons among countries can help to identify opportunities for the reduction of inequalities in health. We compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality and self-assessed health among 22 countries in all parts of Europe. Methods We obtained data on mortality according to education level and occupational class from census-based mortality studies. Deaths were classified according to cause, including common causes, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer; causes related to smoking; causes related to alcohol use; and causes amenable to medical intervention, such as tuberculosis and hypertension. Data on self-assessed health, smoking, and obesity according to education and income were obtained from health or multipurpose surveys. For each country, the association between socioeconomic status and health outcomes was measured with the use of regression-based inequality indexes. Results In almost all countries, the rates of death and poorer self-assessments of health were substantially higher in groups of lower socioeconomic status, but the magnitude of the inequalities between groups of higher and lower socioeconomic status was much larger in some countries than in others. Inequalities in mortality were small in some southern European countries and very large in most countries in the eastern and Baltic regions. These variations among countries appeared to be attributable in part to causes of death related to smoking or alcohol use or amenable to medical intervention. The magnitude of inequalities in self-assessed health also varied substantially among countries, but in a different pattern. Conclusions We observed variation across Europe in the magnitude of inequalities in health associated with socioeconomic status. These inequalities might be reduced by improving educational opportunities, income distribution, health-related behavior, or access to health care.

2,835 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There has been a consistent inverse relation between cardiovascular disease, primarily coronary heart disease, and many of the indicators of SES, and evidence for this relation has been derived from prevalence, prospective, and retrospective cohort studies.
Abstract: Despite recent declines in mortality, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States today. It appears that many of the major risk factors for coronary disease have been identified. Researchers are still learning about different modifiable factors that may influence cardiovascular diseases. Socioeconomic status may provide a new focus. The principal measures of SES have been education, occupation, and income or combinations of these. Education has been the most frequent measure because it does not usually change (as occupation or income might) after young adulthood, information about education can be obtained easily, and it is unlikely that poor health in adulthood influences level of education. However, other measures of SES have merit, and the most informative strategy would incorporate multiple indicators of SES. A variety of psychosocial measures--for example, certain aspects of occupational status--may be important mediators of SES and disease. The hypothesis that high job strain may adversely affect health status has a rational basis and is supported by evidence from a limited number of studies. There is a considerable body of evidence for a relation between socioeconomic factors and all-cause mortality. These findings have been replicated repeatedly for 80 years across measures of socioeconomic level and in geographically diverse populations. During 40 years of study there has been a consistent inverse relation between cardiovascular disease, primarily coronary heart disease, and many of the indicators of SES. Evidence for this relation has been derived from prevalence, prospective, and retrospective cohort studies. Of particular importance to the hypothesis that SES is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease was the finding by several investigators that the patterns of association of SES with coronary disease had changed in men during the past 30 to 40 years and that SES has been associated with the decline of coronary mortality since the mid-1960s. However, the declines in coronary mortality of the last few decades have not affected all segments of society equally. There is some evidence that areas with the poorest socioenvironmental conditions experience later onset in the decline in cardiovascular mortality. A number of studies suggest that poor living conditions in childhood and adolescence contribute to increased risk of arteriosclerosis. Some of these studies have been criticized because of their nature, and others for inadequate control of confounding factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

1,829 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that only two methods--the slope index of inequality and the concentration index--are likely to present an accurate picture of socioeconomic inequalities in health.

1,597 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Despite an overall decline in death rates in the United States since 1960, poor and poorly educated people still die at higher rates than those with higher incomes or better educations, and this disparity increased between 1960 and 1986.
Abstract: Background There is an inverse relation between socioeconomic status and mortality. Over the past several decades death rates in the United States have declined, but it is unclear whether all socioeconomic groups have benefited equally. Methods Using records from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey (n = 13,491) and the 1986 National Health Interview Survey (n = 30,725), we replicated the analysis by Kitagawa and Hauser of differential mortality in 1960. We calculated direct standardized mortality rates and indirect standardized mortality ratios for persons 25 to 64 years of age according to race, sex, income, and family status. Results The inverse relation between mortality and socioeconomic status persisted in 1986 and was stronger than in 1960. The disparity in mortality rates according to income and education increased for men and women, whites and blacks, and family members and unrelated persons. Over the 26-year period, the inequalities according to educational level increased for whites an...

1,517 citations